Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Cohabitation and Marriage

In the past 40 years there has been a dramatic change in the amounts of marriage and cohabitation, for example 60% of first time marriages end in divorce, which means the amount of second marriages have increased because everyone always wants someone to hold onto in life and you can never be too old to find that someone.Firstly, when a male and female are married, there is important factors to consider. Traditionally it was important for the male to be the ‘Breadwinner’ in the family and bring in the income, and for the female to be a housewife and tend to the children’s needs as well as the household, cooking every meal and cleaning the house. It was important for the family to have a function in society.But now tradition has been pushed aside and now women have careers, Sue Sharpe discovered this change in women’s views on life when she first visited a school in 1976 to see that the girls at the school only had visioned of being a housewife in the future, she then returned to the same school in 1994 to observe that all the girls had dreamed of having careers, this shows that women now having more of a role in society could prove a struggle for men not being the leader anymore.Also in a marriage men and women moreover look for not just love, but friendship. If friendship is not found or one partner doesn’t open up to their lover, then a marriage can start to crumble. Plus divorce is also frowned upon by functionalists. Furthermore in the past 40 years there has been an increase in cohabitation (living together but not being married). There can be many reasons for this, from economical and not being able to afford a wedding seen as the average church wedding costs ? 15,000 or not being ready.One of the most popular reasons is that couples want to in a sense ‘try out’ living with somebody before they spend massive amounts of money and vow to spend the rest of their lives with someone who they might not even like, th is gives them a chance to back out of proceedings and find their soul mate. Moreover another reason that cohabitation is increasing is because of stability. Cohabitation is very rare cases lasts longer than ten years, therefore first marriages are more stable and cohabitation is generally safer for younger couples as they don’t have to rush into the rest of their lives.Feminist’s note that women’s expectations of marriage have radically changed, compared with previous generations. In the 1990s, most divorce petitions were put forward by women. This may support Thornes and Collard’s (1979) view that women expect far more from marriage than men and, in particular, that they value friendship and emotional gratification more than then do. If husbands fail to love up to these expectations, women may feel the need to look elsewhere.This would also support the fact that, on average, the number of divorce proceedings started by women is about 70%. In the past 40 years also, the standard of living has increased greatly, which means people are living longer, this includes; Scientific and medical advances, the welfare state, safer and healthier working conditions, higher accommodation standards, improved education and health awareness, better food and food technology e. g. microwaves and toasters, better hygiene and sanitation and improved medical care.All these factors are huge reasons why people have started living longer, and with people living longer there is more of a chance of marriage in their long lived lifes and more than just one. . On the other hand there has been a decrease in family size, this is because of; More child-centeredness, increasing geographical mobility, improved and ease of access contraception, declining death and infant mortality rate, the welfare state, the changing role of women, compulsory education of children and the change of norms and values.These are all elements in which influence the decline in average fam ily size. Lastly, there has been an increase in marriage because of growing secularization, the changes on the views of religion meant that people from different countries have integrated from their foreign countries and settled in Britain, where they have found love, and for them it is more traditional for them to marry before living together. The basic development of cohabitation is that it is on the increase and has been for the last decade.The proportion of non-married people cohabiting has risen sharply in the last 20 years from 11% of men and 13% of women in 1986 to 24% and 25% respectively. In 2007, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) suggested that cohabiting couples are the fastest growing family type in the UK. In fact, around 2. 2 million families are cohabiting couples with or without children. This family type has grown by 65% since 1997, and really, the numbers are likely to be higher than this because the ONS data did not include same-sex couples living together. In addition, the ONS data suggested that a third of teenagers in 2007 were destined to cohabit rather than marry compared with one in ten of their grandparents. As we gathered that the general trend is on the increase, it’s good to know the reasons why. One of the first reasons, which I mentioned earlier on, is that people like to cohabit to â€Å"test the water. † During this period, they will assess whether they (the couple) are compatible with each other and whether they will be able to live with each other before making any sort of commitments.After all, cohabitation on average lasts for 5 years, which then 60% of cohabitees will then marry. Another reason for the said trend is that there are a significant number of people who live together whilst waiting for a divorce. For example, in 2005, 23% of cohabiting men were separated from a previous partner whilst 36% were divorced. So although a person may be married, they may have separated and moved into another house to live with a person they have met. They will then be counted as a cohabitee.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Lost Symbol Chapter 119-121

CHAPTER 119 In the chamber at the top of the House of the Temple, the one who called himself Mal'akh stood before the great altar and gently massaged the virgin skin atop his head. Verbum significatium, he chanted in preparation. Verbum omnificum. The final ingredient had been found at last. The most precious treasures are often the simplest. Above the altar, wisps of fragrant smoke now swirled, billowing up from the censer. The suffumigations ascended through the shaft of moonlight, clearing a channel skyward through which a liberated soul could travel freely. The time had come. Mal'akh retrieved the vial of Peter's darkened blood and uncorked it. With his captive looking on, he dipped the nib of the crow's feather into the crimson tincture and raised it to the sacred circle of flesh atop his head. He paused a moment . . . thinking of how long he had waited for this night. His great transformation was finally at hand. When the Lost Word is written on the mind of man, he is then ready to receive unimaginable power. Such was the ancient promise of apotheosis. So far, mankind had been unable to realize that promise, and Mal'akh had done what he could to keep it that way. With a steady hand, Mal'akh touched the nib of the feather to his skin. He needed no mirror, no assistance, only his sense of touch, and his mind's eye. Slowly, meticulously, he began inscribing the Lost Word inside the circular ouroboros on his scalp. Peter Solomon looked on with an expression of horror. When Mal'akh finished, he closed his eyes, set down the feather, and let the air out of his lungs entirely. For the first time in his life, he felt a sensation he had never known. I am complete. I am at one. Mal'akh had worked for years on the artifact that was his body, and now, as he neared his moment of final transformation, he could feel every line that had ever been inscribed on his flesh. I am a true masterpiece. Perfect and complete. â€Å"I gave you what you asked for.† Peter's voice intruded. â€Å"Send help to Katherine. And stop that file.† Mal'akh opened his eyes and smiled. â€Å"You and I are not quite finished.† He turned to the altar and picked up the sacrificial knife, running his finger across the sleek iron blade. â€Å"This ancient knife was commissioned by God,† he said, â€Å"for use in a human sacrifice. You recognized it earlier, no?† Solomon's gray eyes were like stone. â€Å"It is unique, and I've heard the legend.† â€Å"Legend? The account appears in Holy Scripture. You don't believe it's true?† Peter just stared. Mal'akh had spent a fortune locating and obtaining this artifact. Known as the Akedah knife, it had been crafted over three thousand years ago from an iron meteorite that had fallen to earth. Iron from heaven, as the early mystics called it. It was believed to be the exact knife used by Abraham at the Akedah–the near sacrifice of his son Isaac on Mount Moriah–as depicted in Genesis. The knife's astounding history included possession by popes, Nazi mystics, European alchemists, and private collectors. They protected and admired it, Mal'akh thought, but none dared unleash its true power by using it for its real purpose. Tonight, the Akedah knife would fulfill its destiny. The Akedah had always been sacred in Masonic ritual. In the very first degree, Masons celebrated â€Å"the most august gift ever offered to God . . . the submission of Abraham to the volitions of the supreme being by proffering Isaac, his firstborn . . .† The weight of the blade felt exhilarating in Mal'akh's hand as he crouched down and used the freshly sharpened knife to sever the ropes binding Peter to his wheelchair. The bonds fell to the floor. Peter Solomon winced in pain as he attempted to shift his cramped limbs. â€Å"Why are you doing this to me? What do you think this will accomplish?† â€Å"You of all people should understand,† Mal'akh replied. â€Å"You study the ancient ways. You know that the power of the mysteries relies on sacrifice . . . on releasing a human soul from its body. It has been this way since the beginning.† â€Å"You know nothing of sacrifice,† Peter said, his voice seething with pain and loathing. Excellent, Mal'akh thought. Feed your hatred. It will only make this easier. Mal'akh's empty stomach growled as he paced before his captive. â€Å"There is enormous power in the shedding of human blood. Everyone understood that, from the early Egyptians, to the Celtic Druids, to the Chinese, to the Aztecs. There is magic in human sacrifice, but modern man has become weak, too fearful to make true offerings, too frail to give the life that is required for spiritual transformation. The ancient texts are clear, though. Only by offering what is most sacred can man access the ultimate power.† â€Å"You consider me a sacred offering?† Mal'akh now laughed out loud. â€Å"You really don't understand yet, do you?† Peter gave him an odd look. â€Å"Do you know why I have a deprivation tank in my home?† Mal'akh placed his hands on his hips and flexed his elaborately decorated body, which was still covered only by a loincloth. â€Å"I have been practicing . . . preparing . . . anticipating the moment when I am only mind . . . when I am released from this mortal shell . . . when I have offered up this beautiful body to the gods in sacrifice. I am the precious one! I am the pure white lamb!† Peter's mouth fell open but no words came out. â€Å"Yes, Peter, a man must offer to the gods that which he holds most dear. His purest white dove . . . his most precious and worthy offering. You are not precious to me. You are not a worthy offering.† Mal'akh glared at him. â€Å"Don't you see? You are not the sacrifice, Peter . . . I am. Mine is the flesh that is the offering. I am the gift. Look at me. I have prepared, made myself worthy for my final journey. I am the gift!† Peter remained speechless. â€Å"The secret is how to die,† Mal'akh now said. â€Å"Masons understand that.† He pointed to the altar. â€Å"You revere the ancient truths, and yet you are cowards. You understand the power of sacrifice and yet you keep a safe distance from death, performing your mock murders and bloodless death rituals. Tonight, your symbolic altar will bear witness to its true power . . . and its actual purpose.† Mal'akh reached down and grasped Peter Solomon's left hand, pressing the handle of the Akedah knife into his palm. The left hand serves the darkness. This, too, had been planned. Peter would have no choice in the matter. Mal'akh could fathom no sacrifice more potent and symbolic than one performed on this altar, by this man, with this knife, plunged into the heart of an offering whose mortal flesh was wrapped like a gift in a shroud of mystical symbols. With this offering of self, Mal'akh would establish his rank in the hierarchy of demons. Darkness and blood were where the true power lay. The ancients knew this, the Adepts choosing sides consistent with their individual natures. Mal'akh had chosen sides wisely. Chaos was the natural law of the universe. Indifference was the engine of entropy. Man's apathy was the fertile ground in which the dark spirits tended their seeds. I have served them, and they will receive me as a god. Peter did not move. He simply stared down at the ancient knife gripped in his hand. â€Å"I will you,† Mal'akh taunted. â€Å"I am a willing sacrifice. Your final role has been written. You will transform me. You will liberate me from my body. You will do this, or you will lose your sister and your brotherhood. You will truly be all alone.† He paused, smiling down at his captive. â€Å"Consider this your final punishment.† Peter's eyes rose slowly to meet Mal'akh's. â€Å"Killing you? A punishment? Do you think I will hesitate? You murdered my son. My mother. My entire family.† â€Å"No!† Mal'akh exploded with a force that startled even himself. â€Å"You are wrong! I did not murder your family! You did! It was you who made the choice to leave Zachary in prison! And from there, the wheels were in motion! You killed your family, Peter, not me!† Peter's knuckles turned white, his fingers clenching the knife in rage. â€Å"You know nothing of why I left Zachary in prison.† â€Å"I know everything!† Mal'akh fired back. â€Å"I was there. You claimed you were trying to help him. Were you trying to help him when you offered him the choice between wealth or wisdom? Were you trying to help him when you gave him the ultimatum to join the Masons? What kind of father gives a child the choice between `wealth or wisdom' and expects him to know how to handle it! What kind of father leaves his own son in a prison instead of flying him home to safety!† Mal'akh now moved in front of Peter and crouched down, placing his tattooed face only inches from his face. â€Å"But most important . . . what kind of father can look his own son in the eyes . . . even after all these years . . . and not even recognize him!† Mal'akh's words echoed for several seconds in the stone chamber. Then silence. In the abrupt stillness, Peter Solomon seemed to have been jolted from his trance. His face clouded now with a visage of total incredulity. Yes, Father. It's me. Mal'akh had waited years for this moment . . . to take revenge on the man who had abandoned him . . . to stare into those gray eyes and speak the truth that had been buried all these years. Now the moment was here, and he spoke slowly, longing to watch the full weight of his words gradually crush Peter Solomon's soul. â€Å"You should be happy, Father. Your prodigal son has returned.† Peter's face was now as pale as death. Mal'akh savored every moment. â€Å"My own father made the decision to leave me in prison . . . and in that instant, I vowed that he had rejected me for the last time. I was no longer his son. Zachary Solomon ceased to exist.† Two glistening teardrops welled suddenly in his father's eyes, and Mal'akh thought they were the most beautiful thing he had ever seen. Peter choked back tears, staring up at Mal'akh's face as if seeing him for the very first time. â€Å"All the warden wanted was money,† Mal'akh said, â€Å"but you refused. It never occurred to you, though, that my money was just as green as yours. The warden did not care who paid him, only that he was paid. When I offered to pay him handsomely, he selected a sickly inmate about my size, dressed him in my clothes, and beat him beyond all recognition. The photos you saw . . . and the sealed casket you buried . . . they were not mine. They belonged to a stranger.† Peter's tear-streaked face contorted now with anguish and disbelief. â€Å"Oh my God . . . Zachary.† â€Å"Not anymore. When Zachary walked out of prison, he was transformed.† His adolescent physique and childlike face had drastically mutated when he flooded his young body with experimental growth hormones and steroids. Even his vocal cords had been ravaged, transforming his boyish voice into a permanent whisper. Zachary became Andros. Andros became Mal'akh. And tonight . . . Mal'akh will become his greatest incarnation of all. At that moment in Kalorama Heights, Katherine Solomon stood over the open desk drawer and gazed down at what could be described only as a fetishist's collection of old newspaper articles and photographs. â€Å"I don't understand,† she said, turning to Bellamy. â€Å"This lunatic was obviously obsessed with my family, but–â€Å" â€Å"Keep going . . .† urged Bellamy, taking a seat and still looking deeply shaken. Katherine dug deeper into the newspaper articles, every one of which related to the Solomon family–Peter's many successes, Katherine's research, their mother Isabel's terrible murder, Zachary Solomon's widely publicized drug use, incarceration, and brutal murder in a Turkish prison. The fixation this man had on the Solomon family was beyond fanatical, and yet Katherine saw nothing yet to suggest why. It was then that she saw the photographs. The first showed Zachary standing knee-deep in azure water on a beach dotted with whitewashed houses. Greece? The photo, she assumed, could have been taken only during Zach's freewheeling drug days in Europe. Strangely, though, Zach looked healthier than he did in the paparazzi shots of an emaciated kid partying with the drug crowd. He looked more fit, stronger somehow, more mature. Katherine never recalled him looking so healthy. Puzzled, she checked the date stamp on the photo. But that's . . . impossible. The date was almost a full year after Zachary had died in prison. Suddenly Katherine was flipping desperately through the stack. All of the photos were of Zachary Solomon . . . gradually getting older. The collection appeared to be some kind of pictorial autobiography, chronicling a slow transformation. As the pictures progressed, Katherine saw a sudden and dramatic change. She looked on in horror as Zachary's body began mutating, his muscles bulging, and his facial features morphing from the obvious heavy use of steroids. His frame seemed to double in mass, and a haunting fierceness crept into his eyes. I don't even recognize this man! He looked nothing like Katherine's memories of her young nephew. When she reached a picture of him with a shaved head, she felt her knees begin to buckle. Then she saw a photo of his bare body . . . adorned with the first traces of tattoos. Her heart almost stopped. â€Å"Oh my God . . .† CHAPTER 120 â€Å"Right turn!† Langdon shouted from the backseat of the commandeered Lexus SUV. Simkins swerved onto S Street and gunned the vehicle through a tree-lined residential neighborhood. As they neared the corner of Sixteenth Street, the House of the Temple rose like a mountain on the right. Simkins stared up at the massive structure. It looked like someone had built a pyramid on top of Rome's Pantheon. He prepared to turn right on Sixteenth toward the front of the building. â€Å"Don't turn!† Langdon ordered. â€Å"Go straight! Stay on S!† Simkins obeyed, driving alongside the east side of the building. â€Å"At Fifteenth,† Langdon said, â€Å"turn right!† Simkins followed his navigator, and moments later, Langdon had pointed out a nearly invisible, unpaved access road that bisected the gardens behind the House of the Temple. Simkins turned in to the drive and gunned the Lexus toward the rear of the building. â€Å"Look!† Langdon said, pointing to the lone vehicle parked near the rear entrance. It was a large van. â€Å"They're here.† Simkins parked the SUV and killed the engine. Quietly, everyone got out and prepared to move in. Simkins stared up at the monolithic structure. â€Å"You say the Temple Room is at the top?† Langdon nodded, pointing all the way to the pinnacle of the building. â€Å"That flat area on top of the pyramid is actually a skylight.† Simkins spun back to Langdon. â€Å"The Temple Room has a skylight?† Langdon gave him an odd look. â€Å"Of course. An oculus to heaven . . . directly above the altar.† The UH-60 sat idling at Dupont Circle. In the passenger seat, Sato gnawed at her fingernails, awaiting news from her team. Finally, Simkins's voice crackled over the radio. â€Å"Director?† â€Å"Sato here,† she barked. â€Å"We're entering the building, but I have some additional recon for you.† â€Å"Go ahead.† â€Å"Mr. Langdon just informed me that the room in which the target is most likely located has a very large skylight.† Sato considered the information for several seconds. â€Å"Understood. Thank you.† Simkins signed off. Sato spit out a fingernail and turned to the pilot. â€Å"Take her up.† CHAPTER 121 Like any parent who had lost a child, Peter Solomon had often imagined how old his boy would be now . . . what he would look like . . . and what he would have become. Peter Solomon now had his answers. The massive tattooed creature before him had begun life as a tiny, precious infant . . . baby Zach curled up in a wicker bassinette . . . taking his first fumbling steps across Peter's study . . . learning to speak his first words. The fact that evil could spring from an innocent child in a loving family remained one of the paradoxes of the human soul. Peter had been forced to accept early on that although his own blood flowed in his son's veins, the heart pumping that blood was his son's own. Unique and singular . . . as if randomly chosen from the universe. My son . . . he killed my mother, my friend Robert Langdon, and possibly my sister. An icy numbness flooded Peter's heart as he searched his son's eyes for any connection . . . anything familiar. The man's eyes, however, although gray like Peter's, were those of a total stranger, filled with a hatred and a vengefulness that were almost otherworldly. â€Å"Are you strong enough?† his son taunted, glancing at the Akedah knife gripped in Peter's hand. â€Å"Can you finish what you started all those years ago?† â€Å"Son . . .† Solomon barely recognized his own voice. â€Å"I . . . I loved . . . you.† â€Å"Twice you tried to kill me. You abandoned me in prison. You shot me on Zach's bridge. Now finish it!† For an instant, Solomon felt like he was floating outside his own body. He no longer recognized himself. He was missing a hand, was totally bald, dressed in a black robe, sitting in a wheelchair, and clutching an ancient knife. â€Å"Finish it!† the man shouted again, the tattoos on his naked chest rippling. â€Å"Killing me is the only way you can save Katherine . . . the only way to save your brotherhood!† Solomon felt his gaze move to the laptop and cellular modem on the pigskin chair. SENDING MESSAGE: 92% COMPLETE His mind could not shake the images of Katherine bleeding to death . . . or of his Masonic brothers. â€Å"There is still time,† the man whispered. â€Å"You know it's the only choice. Release me from my mortal shell.† â€Å"Please,† Solomon said. â€Å"Don't do this . . .† â€Å"You did this!† the man hissed. â€Å"You forced your child to make an impossible choice! Do you remember that night? Wealth or wisdom? That was the night you pushed me away forever. But I've returned, Father . . . and tonight it is your turn to choose. Zachary or Katherine? Which will it be? Will you kill your son to save your sister? Will you kill your son to save your brotherhood? Your country? Or will you wait until it's too late? Until Katherine is dead . . . until the video is public . . . until you must live the rest of your life knowing you could have stopped these tragedies. Time is running out. You know what must be done.† Peter's heart ached. You are not Zachary, he told himself. Zachary died long, long ago. Whatever you are . . . and wherever you came from . . . you are not of me. And although Peter Solomon did not believe his own words, he knew he had to make a choice. He was out of time. Find the Grand Staircase! Robert Langdon dashed through darkened hallways, winding his way toward the center of the building. Turner Simkins remained close on his heels. As Langdon had hoped, he burst out into the building's main atrium. Dominated by eight Doric columns of green granite, the atrium looked like a hybrid sepulcher– Greco-Roman-Egyptian–with black marble statues, chandelier fire bowls, Teutonic crosses, double-headed phoenix medallions, and sconces bearing the head of Hermes. Langdon turned and ran toward the sweeping marble staircase at the far end of the atrium. â€Å"This leads directly to the Temple Room,† he whispered as the two men ascended as quickly and quietly as possible. On the first landing, Langdon came face-to-face with a bronze bust of Masonic luminary Albert Pike, along with the engraving of his most famous quote: WHAT WE HAVE DONE FOR OURSELVES ALONE DIES WITH US; WHAT WE HAVE DONE FOR OTHERS AND THE WORLD REMAINS AND IS IMMORTAL. Mal'akh had sensed a palpable shift in the atmosphere of the Temple Room, as if all the frustration and pain Peter Solomon had ever felt was now boiling to the surface . . . focusing itself like a laser on Mal'akh. Yes . . . it is time. Peter Solomon had risen from his wheelchair and was standing now, facing the altar, gripping the knife. â€Å"Save Katherine,† Mal'akh coaxed, luring him toward the altar, backing up, and finally laying his own body down on the white shroud he had prepared. â€Å"Do what you need to do.† As if moving through a nightmare, Peter inched forward. Mal'akh reclined fully now onto his back, gazing up through the oculus at the wintry moon. The secret is how to die. This moment could not be any more perfect. Adorned with the Lost Word of the ages, I offer myself by the left hand of my father. Mal'akh drew a deep breath. Receive me, demons, for this is my body, which is offered for you. Standing over Mal'akh, Peter Solomon was trembling. His tear-soaked eyes shone with desperation, indecision, anguish. He looked one last time toward the modem and laptop across the room. â€Å"Make the choice,† Mal'akh whispered. â€Å"Release me from my flesh. God wants this. You want this.† He laid his arms at his side and arched his chest forward, offering up his magnificent double-headed phoenix. Help me shed the body that clothes my soul. Peter's tearful eyes seemed to be staring through Mal'akh now, not even seeing him. â€Å"I killed your mother!† Mal'akh whispered. â€Å"I killed Robert Langdon! I'm murdering your sister! I'm destroying your brotherhood! Do what you have to do!† Peter Solomon's visage now contorted into a mask of absolute grief and regret. He threw his head back and screamed in anguish as he raised the knife. Robert Langdon and Agent Simkins arrived breathless outside the Temple Room doors as a bloodcurdling scream erupted from within. It was Peter's voice. Langdon was certain. Peter's cry was one of absolute agony. I'm too late! Ignoring Simkins, Langdon seized the handles and yanked open the doors. The horrific scene before him confirmed his worst fears. There, in the center of the dimly lit chamber, the silhouette of a man with a shaved head stood at the great altar. He wore a black robe, and his hand was clutching a large blade. Before Langdon could move, the man was driving the knife down toward the body that lay outstretched on the altar. Mal'akh had closed his eyes. So beautiful. So perfect. The ancient blade of the Akedah knife had glinted in the moonlight as it arched over him. Scented wisps of smoke had spiraled upward above him, preparing a pathway for his soon-to-be- liberated soul. His killer's lone scream of torment and desperation still rang through the sacred space as the knife came down. I am besmeared with the blood of human sacrifice and parents' tears. Mal'akh braced for the glorious impact. His moment of transformation had arrived. Incredibly, he felt no pain. A thunderous vibration filled his body, deafening and deep. The room began shaking, and a brilliant white light blinded him from above. The heavens roared. And Mal'akh knew it had happened. Exactly as he had planned. Langdon did not remember sprinting toward the altar as the helicopter appeared overhead. Nor did he remember leaping with his arms out-stretched . . . soaring toward the man in the black robe . . . trying desperately to tackle him before he could plunge the knife down a second time. Their bodies collided, and Langdon saw a bright light sweep down through the oculus and illuminate the altar. He expected to see the bloody body of Peter Solomon on the altar, but the naked chest that shone in the light had no blood on it at all . . . only a tapestry of tattoos. The knife lay broken beside him, apparently having been driven into the stone altar rather than into flesh. As he and the man in the black robe crashed together onto the hard stone floor, Langdon saw the bandaged nub on the end of the man's right arm, and he realized to his bewilderment that he had just tackled Peter Solomon. As they slid together across the stone floor, the helicopter's searchlights blazed down from above. The chopper thundered in low, its skids practically touching the expansive wall of glass. On the front of the helicopter, a strange-looking gun rotated, aiming downward through the glass. The red beam of its laser scope sliced through the skylight and danced across the floor, directly toward Langdon and Solomon. No! But there was no gunfire from above . . . only the sound of the helicopter blades. Langdon felt nothing but an eerie ripple of energy that shimmered through his cells. Behind his head, on the pigskin chair, the laptop hissed strangely. He spun in time to see its screen suddenly flash to black. Unfortunately, the last visible message had been clear. SENDING MESSAGE: 100% COMPLETE Pull up! Damn it! Up! The UH-60 pilot threw his rotors into overdrive, trying to keep his skids from touching any part of the large glass skylight. He knew the six thousand pounds of lift force that surged downward from his rotors was already straining the glass to its breaking point. Unfortunately, the incline of the pyramid beneath the helicopter was efficiently shedding the thrust sideways, robbing him of lift. Up! Now! He tipped the nose, trying to skim away, but the left strut hit the center of the glass. It was only for an instant, but that was all it took. The Temple Room's massive oculus exploded in a swirl of glass and wind . . . sending a torrent of jagged shards plummeting into the room below. Stars falling from heaven. Mal'akh stared up into the beautiful white light and saw a veil of shimmering jewels fluttering toward him . . . accelerating . . . as if racing to shroud him in their splendor. Suddenly there was pain. Everywhere. Stabbing. Searing. Slashing. Razor-sharp knives piercing soft flesh. Chest, neck, thighs, face. His body tightened all at once, recoiling. His blood-filled mouth cried out as the pain ripped him from his trance. The white light above transformed itself, and suddenly, as if by magic, a dark helicopter was suspended above him, its thundering blades driving an icy wind down into the Temple Room, chilling Mal'akh to the core and dispersing the wisps of incense to the distant corners of the room. Mal'akh turned his head and saw the Akedah knife lying broken by his side, smashed upon the granite altar, which was covered in a blanket of shattered glass. Even after everything I did to him . . . Peter Solomon averted the knife. He refused to spill my blood. With welling horror, Mal'akh raised his head and peered down along the length of his own body. This living artifact was to have been his great offering. But it lay in tatters. His body was drenched in blood . . . huge shards of glass protruding from his flesh in all directions. Weakly, Mal'akh lowered his head back to the granite altar and stared up through the open space in the roof. The helicopter was gone now, in its place a silent, wintry moon. Wide-eyed, Mal'akh lay gasping for breath . . . all alone on the great altar.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Nature of Realism in the Film 'Psycho Movie Review

The Nature of Realism in the Film 'Psycho - Movie Review Example Yet, there aren't any shots in the film that can be convincingly categorized as one of horror. What is achieved ultimately is the unfolding of the emerging suspense through plots of actions pieced together in order to serve as background and also connect them to the central story. There is not even an iota of the ethereal to make the film look like it is made using standards other than what is common in daily life. Undoubtedly, Hitchcock has successfully utilized the rules of dramatics to keep the audience on the edge with well crafted sequences, actions and dialogues, and has taken the trouble to keep the hearts beating fast to match the film with the title. The film begins randomly with the scene of the city of Phoenix and settles down on a window with the Venetian blinds covering it. The scene within the window is that of Marion Crane and Sam Loomis engaged in love making. Marion goes on to hog the scene from then on for nearly half of the film's duration. The film begins with her affair with Sam Loomis. From here we are taken to her office. At the office, she faces Tom Cassidy, played by Frank Albertson, and his lecherous behavior. She chooses to steal the money he gives her in cash to buy a home for "his little girl." This event is actually the precursor to the entire film. Had she not secretly decided to steal the money, she would not have had any reason to leave Phoenix, Arizona. Had she not left Phoenix, the circumstances leading to the making of the film might not have happened. Life would have continued as a normal routine. But things happen. Marion steals the money and decides to run away with it without knowing exactly where. All she knows is that she is in possession of 40,000 and the future looked bright with the money in hand. Hitchcock has a way of blending small events to make scintillating feature films. The wrongness in Marion's action in stealing the money is rendered insignificant with the antagonizing behavior of Cassidy. On the contrary, we find ourselves feeling pleased with her action because it serves the man right anyway. There is nothing wrong in conning a lecher. So Marion runs away and Hitchcock gradually takes us to the scene where Marion sitting in her car comes face to face with her boss. He takes a good look at her but does not see through her intentions and she drives away. As she drives on, the day begins to end. It is getting dark and the audience sees headlights of the oncoming vehicles gliding over Marion's face. Sometimes the headlights flash behind her. She has left the city limits and is now driving in the open countryside. Nonetheless, the look of anxiety is playing on her face and she is tired. Finally she wants to sleep and her eyelids keep shutting

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 132

Summary - Essay Example With the diversification of learner enrolment, it is evident that the teaching processes also needed to change. The combination of the traditional learning and online teaching-blended learning- has proven useful for the century’s teaching (Poon, 2013). Despite the challenges that come with the blended learning especially when it comes to online learning, this form of learning has been termed cost effective as lots of materials are placed online, and can be utilized over years depending on their suitability. Learners’ satisfaction has also been a major benefit of this form of learning. Poon (2013) says that lots of learners showed perseverance and dedication in the learning process. Other displayed critical thinking skills as opposed to the ones who were simply exposed to face-to-face learning. Conclusively, it is justified to argue that online learning has been greatly beneficial to the learning process as it has greatly boosted the â€Å"traditional† learning. Online learning has presented opportunities to embrace technology in the learning

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Proposal of literature review of proportional hazards model Research Paper

Proposal of literature review of proportional hazards model - Research Paper Example Most survival modeling examines the relationship between survival and one or several predictors. The survival library in R and S-PLUS also holds all of the other commonly used tools of survival analysis. Below is a brief description of the proportional hazards (Schoenfeld 499). Let z = {x, y †¦} be a vector of 1 or several explanatory variables supposed to affect lifetime. These variables may be incessant, for example, temperature in engineering studies, or dosage level of a given drug in medical tests or better still, they may be indicator variables with the value 1 when a given factor or condition is present (Schoenfeld 500). Let the hazard rate for a nominal set z 0 = (x 0, y0†¦) of the variables be set by h 0 (t), with h0 (t) indicating legitimate hazard function for unspecified life distribution model. In this regard, the proportional hazards model supposes that we can note the modified hazard function for a new value of z as: Given a log-linear model assumption for g (z), and with no additional suppositions concerning the life distribution model, it will be possible to analyze investigational data and figure out utmost likelihood estimates. Additionally, it would be possible to use likelihood ratio tests to decide which explanatory variables will are extremely significant. In this study, a series of trials on treatment of cancer will be conducted. The study will seek to assess the importance of chemotherapy and radiation therapy over radiation therapy alone. The following data from the study group will be used for the purpose of elucidating the effect of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A total of 80 patients will be treated with radiation therapy alone in the first round, while the same patients will be treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Prognostic factors will be age and whether patients will have necrosis in their surgical

Comparing two projects Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 10500 words

Comparing two projects - Research Paper Example rojects preceded from necessity but while the Gautrain project is a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between the province of Gauteng and the Bombela Consortium, the A380 is a flagship project of a company whose majority shares are owned by European governments under a â€Å"Contractual Partnership.† As a PPP, the Gautrain project was initiated by the Gauteng province, which provided the land and the accompanying pertinent legislations. On the other hand, concessionaire Bombela, the winning private concessionaire, took care of the rest - subcontracting various aspects of the works from the civil works, electrical and mechanical works, operations and maintenance to its various partners. The risks are therefore shifted from Gauteng to Bombela. Airbus, on the other hand, divided the work on the A380 among its several partners whose plants are located across the European continent in accordance with the latter’s specialisation; their finished products eventually transported to Airbus’ main headquarters in Toulouse, France for assembly work. The cost of production of the Gautrain was primarily shouldered by the private concessionaire while the A380 was shouldered alone by the airplane manufacturer partly from money loaned to it by the respective government partners unde r a â€Å"launch loan.† Of the nine provinces constituting South Africa (SA hereafter), Gauteng is the smallest with its area comprising a mere 1.4% of the entire area of the country. As can be seen from Fig. 1, Gauteng (in yellow) is located in the northeastern portion and is landlocked by four other SA provinces. Despite its area and inaccessibility to export and import terminals, Gauteng is the economic center of South Africa 1 and is home to most of SA’s corporate headquarters and financial sector located in the province. 2 It comprises three very important urban areas: Pretoria, the capital of South Africa where the national political government is located; Johannesburg, the capital of the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Analysis of Hyundai Motor Company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Analysis of Hyundai Motor Company - Essay Example The company in focus for this paper is Hyundai motors. Hyundai is a Korea based company but it has grown steadily in the automotive market over the past few years. Automotive industry is highly competitive these days, according to Bloomberg Businessweek (2012), the US automotive market is highly competitive these days, home companies like General Motors, Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler Group LLC are expected to lose market share to companies like Toyota and Honda. Hyundai Motor Co. has reported to have doubled its share in US automotive market as compared to their share in 2005. It is still expected to gain 0.1 % market share more than the last year. According to the customer retention study carried out by J.D. Power and associates in 2011, Hyundai has been declared to be number one in customer retention. According to the study Hyundai’s customer retention rate has increased by 4 points thus raising it to 64% in the year 2012, which implies that among the automotive brands custome rs were the most loyal towards Hyundai. Its brand name is currently measured to be nearly $5 billion. As the future of every company is based on the relations it has with its customers, thus it’s safe to say that Hyundai's future seems even more promising. In this paper the company’s performance will be analyzed as to see whether its market share value, which is currently $ 203.16 (Won 229,000), according to the company’s overview, reflects the actual performance of the company or not. As the consolidated reports for the year ended 2011 are not available yet, so the analysis will be carried out for the year ended 2008 to year ended 2010. Along with the comparison with last years, the performance of the company will also be compared with the financial performance of Toyota Corp. Financial Analysis As the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reflection of the company’s performance on its share value, the basic analysis will be carried out on the profita bility of the company with relation to the shareholders’ equity. Keeping the performance of the company from the year 2008 to 2010 in mind, it will be analyzed how the company is performing over the past few years as well as with its competitor Toyota Corp. The profit margin of the company drastically fell to 4.42% from 13.7% in 2009. The company has been able to recover a bit, the profit margin has increased to 7.09% in 2010, and even though the consolidated statements of the company for the year 2011 are not yet released, it has been reported that Hyundai has broken its sales records in the year 2011, so a probable increase in profitability can also be predicted. As opposed to the sketchy performance over these years, the company is still doing better as compared to Toyota Corp., which reported a profit margin of only 1.54% in the year 2010. A company’s revenue is highly dependent on the fact that how the company is utilizing its assets for generating sales every yea r, as is defined by the net return on assets, which has prominently increased for Hyundai over these three years from 2.71% to 19.3%, it would

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Places of Worship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Places of Worship - Essay Example Christians have worship place known as church in which the Christians come and obey their lord. Church is the scared place for the Christians where Christians come and pray in order to get internal satisfaction and inspiration. Churches are built in the shape of a Cross on which Christians believe that Jesus Christ was given punishments and then he died. There are different parts of a church for example the aisle and stairs are designed to give the shape of the stairs towards the heavens. The heavens are given the shape of the junction. Churches are present in every corner of the world. There is a need to inculcate the importance of churches because of the fact that Christianity is the fastest growing religion in the world. Cathedrals are some important types of churches. The role of pastors or bishops is really interesting and of colossal importance in church. The bishop is the one who leads theprayers, conducts all theceremonies and prayers in a church. No official activity can take place without the presence of the pastor or bishop. Many Christians visit the churches often in their routine; some of them visit the churches on Sunday because there arespecial prayers on Sundays. The marriage ceremonies of the Christians also take place in churches because Christians think that if they consummate their marriages in churches, it will bringpeace, pleasure and harmony in their lives. The Masjids Worship place for the Muslims is known as Mosque or Masjid. Muslims are supposed to come in the mosque five times a day for prayers. The prayer timings are set according to the movement of sun. There are three prayers in the day timings and two prayers after that among which, one is on the sunset and the other one is at night known as â€Å"Isha Prayer†. ... During the player, the Muslims stand from shoulder to shoulder in order to inculcate and depict the unity among them. The worship place is packed with people on Friday prayers. Friday prayers are specially obligated on Muslims and during the Friday prayers, all kinds of business activities are forbidden. Worship place of Muslims known as masjid has also a separate place for ablution in which the Muslims clean themselves from water by washing their hands, face, mouth, toes and hair because purification is the first and foremost pre-requisite of the prayer of the Muslims. Muslims are also directed to stand and face one direction known as â€Å"Kaabah†. The Kaabah is the place situated in Saudi Arabia and Muslims are supposed to face its direction in order to give a depiction of unity and oneness. Eid prayer is also one of the most important prayers in the Muslims worship place. Eid days are scheduled two time in a year in which Muslims from all over the world celebrate these eve nts with great enthusiasm and zeal. The masjid is also situated in many main places of the Muslims communities. The masjid is a sacred place for the Muslims and even non also come from different places to see the historical mosques around the world for example Turkey has some of the best and historical mosques where many people come and visit to see the glimpse of the historical places. The Mandirs The sacred worshipping place for the Hindus is known as Tempe or â€Å"Mandir† which is a word of Sanskrit language and it means â€Å"gladdening†. Like other worshipping places, there is always a need for the leading personality to be present in the worship place to complete the official prayers and

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Expanded Definition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Expanded Definition - Essay Example Glycogen is the molecular structure of carbohydrates that is stored in mammals. In humans, the bulk of glycogen is accumulated in skeletal muscles. Glycogen is the key energy substrate during exercise intensity that is more than seventy percent of the oxygen intake. Healthy people often eliminate blood glucose fast when there is excess glucose. The glycogen that is stored in the skeletal muscles is limited because the glycogen synthesis prevents accumulation. After exercise, the rate of glycogen synthesis is increased to replete the stores of glycogen. The diminishing of skeletal muscle glycogen after exercise enables healthy storage of carbohydrates after meals and this averts the growth of type 2 diabetes. Glycogen is carbohydrate stored in human cells. Eighty percent of the produced glycogen is stored in the skeletal muscles. As a result, enzyme glycogen synthase activates the conversion of glucose to glycogen and insulin is the enzyme that prevents conversion of glycogen to gluco se in the body (Jensen et al., 21). Moreover, it is the polysaccharides that maintain the physiological blood glucose concentration. The liver directly contributes to the blood level in the body because of the presence of glucose-6-phosphate. Glycogen in the skeletal muscles is broken down and transported to the liver to help in maintenance of euglycemia (Jensen et al., 2). (2008).  Adrenaline potentiates insulin-stimulated PKB activation in the rat fast-twitch epitrochlearis muscle without affecting IRS-1 associated PI 3-kinase activity.Pflugers Arch.  456, 969–978. doi: 10.1007/s00424-008-0471-z.  [PubMed][Cross

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Differentiated Instruction Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Differentiated Instruction - Research Paper Example They can, therefore, assist in forming the basis on which professionalism exists, and work toward benefitting everyone. Many areas in the world today, need professional development. Professional development assists the organizations attain credibility and maintain a stand in the global market. This paper will examine one such area, and the implementations that help it get there. Professional development in the learning environment is an issue that affects many learning institutions, in present time. Teachers are a fundamental aspect in the learning sector. They form the basis by which many students and learners get the professional assistance they need. Teacher leaders are often looked for to bring order to the current learning environment. They work toward preparing everyone in and out of this environment on how to better themselves while learning. Their place in society dictates that their focus should be placed on both the learner, and their fellow teachers. In terms of educationa l activity, they are meant to steer the learning environment toward achieving the goals and objectives set (Bista & Glasman, 1998). It is this professionalism that promotes the learning environment into what the world expects to have. ... In order to have these objectives achieved, it is vital to know the task of teacher leaders in society, and the learning environment (Gregory, 2003). Their plans and ideas form the foundation on which interest groups relate with one another, and how well and fast they come together to achieve the common goal. One of the central purposes of the professional development plan is to bring out changes in how things operate. Learners need competent and effective teachers. Through the plan, the manner in which teachers are recruited, evaluated, and compensated will determine if learners get a competent and consistent teacher. This may form the grounds on which education facilitators reach out to their learners, and prepare them for the road ahead. This public sector needs to incorporate the learning environment to involve more people than just the learner and the teacher. By doing this, it is likely to have many other sectors replicate what is being done to better their current situations, and attain higher heights (Gregory, 2003). Another objective is to apply all the recommendations in a systematic manner. To do this, teacher leaders and all stakeholders must form a solid unit (Gonzalez & Lambert, 2001). It is not practical to have issues being implemented from every corner, and without caution to the repercussions. Teacher leaders should be more involved in the decision-making process. They must be present whenever decisions are being implemented. This is to agree or disagree with those that work, or do not work in their favor. If such an objective is achieved, teachers and all stakeholders can take accountability for all the actions that occur in the learning environment. This is with the decision-making

Monday, July 22, 2019

Types of Network Attacks Essay Example for Free

Types of Network Attacks Essay A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is mounted with the objective of causing a negative impact on the performance of a computer or network. It is also known as network saturation attack or bandwidth consumption attack. Attackers make DoS attacks by sending a large number of protocol packets to a network. The problems caused by a DoS attack are as follows: * Saturate network resources. * Disrupt connections between two computers, thereby preventing communications between services. Disrupt services to a specific computer. Man-in-the-middle : Man-in-the-middle attacks occur when an attacker successfully inserts an intermediary software or program between two communicating hosts. The intermediary software or program allows attackers to listen to and modify the communication packets passing between the two hosts. The software intercepts the communication packets and then sends the information to the receiving host. The receiving host responds to the software, presuming it to be the legitimate client. Replay Attack : A replay attack is a type of attack in which attackers capture packets containing passwords or digital signatures whenever packets pass between two hosts on a network. In an attempt to obtain an authenticated connection, the attackers then resend the captured packet to the system. In this type of attack, the attacker does not know the actual password, but can simply replay the captured packet. Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) : In the distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack, an attacker uses multiple computers throughout the network that it has previously infected. Such computers act as zombies and work together to send out bogus messages, thereby increasing the amount of phony traffic. The major advantages to an attacker of using a distributed denial-of-service attack are that multiple machines can generate more attack traffic than one machine, multiple attack machines are harder to turn off than one attack machine, and that the behavior of each attack machine can be stealthier, making it harder to track down and shut down. TFN, TRIN00, etc. are tools used for the DDoS attack.

Backbone network Essay Example for Free

Backbone network Essay The chapter starts out explaining how a BN (Backbone Network) works. Backbone Network: Connecting all of the LANs of an organization entails another type of network (BN). A properly designed backbone network provides a high-speed circuit that serves as the central conduit across which the LANs of an organization can communicate. They can also be used to connect LANs within a building, across a campus, and, increasingly, across much greater distances. A BN, as indicated by its name, is a network of its own. Besides connecting the various network segments, the backbone may have its own devices that can be accessed by other network segments Metropolitan area network (MAN): MAN spans a city and is often used to connect remote BNs. MAN in some cases can be considered a citywide BN and as the geographic distances they cover have increased, especially with the use of fiber-optics. BNs connect networks between floors of a building, across a city, or between states and countries. BN and MAN are sometimes used interchangeably, based on the scope of the BN. Network Segments: Each individual LAN owned by an organization is reffered to as a network segment. Horizontal Segment: A moderate- to large-scale organization might have a network segment on each floor of a multistory building. Because each network segment, or LAN, typically occupies its own floor, this type of network segment is often referred to as a horizontal network. For example, assume that a business occupies three floors of a building. On each floor is a separate LAN, or horizontal network segment. Vertical Network: LANs could, and probably would, be connected to each other by a BN. This type of multi-floor connection is an example of a vertical network. The BN in this instance is the central connecting cable running vertically from floor to floor that enables the horizontal networks to communicate with each other. Part of configuration analysis includes determining how each network segment connects to the BN. Generally, each network segment is connected to the BN using either a switch or a router. Deciding which Backbone Protocol to use? Questions to ask: 1) Traffic Demands 2) Constant Communication 3) Mostly Independent Gigabyte Ethernet: is a very popular choice for BNs. The IEEE’s initial standard for Gigabit Ethernet is the 802.3z standard. Gigabit Ethernet allows for a data rate of 1,000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps. A major advantage of all of the officially recognized forms of Gigabit Ethernet is that each form builds on the standards of the preexisting Ethernet protocol. This means that the MAC layer and access method for Gigabit Ethernet are the same as those for standard and Fast Ethernet. Additionally, Gigabit Ethernet supports both half- and full-duplex communications. Other protocols that might be used for a backbone include Frame Relay (FR) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Frame Relay and ATM are also frequently associated with WANs. As such, discussion of Frame Relay and ATM will be reserved for Chapter 7, which focuses on WANs. Backbone Architecture: two most common BN architectures are distributed and collapsed. Factors that influence a business’s decision as to which architecture to use include business needs, the condition of the physical facility (sometimes called the plant or campus), how users need to communicate, and the budget. The larger and more complex the organization, the more critical the decision becomes as to what type of backbone architecture to use. It can be very costly to change an existing backbone architecture once one has been put in place. Distributed Backbone: runs throughout the entire enterprise. This type of backbone uses a central cable to which the network segments are connected. The central cable, which is the backbone, requires its own protocol, such as Gigabit Ethernet; it is also its own network. The backbone is considered to be distributed because each network segment has its own cabled connection to the backbone. The backbone is distributed to the LANs by connecting the LANs to the backbone. They maybe connected with routers and switches. In some cases even servers. A distributed backbone typically has separate routers that connect each logical network to the backbone. Because separate routers are used, internetwork traffic may have to pass through several routers to reach its destination. One advantage of a distributed backbone is that it allows resources required by most, if not all, internetworking users to be placed directly on the BN. Collapsed Backbone: connects all of the network segments to a centra l, single router or switch. This central device is, in effect, the backbone. The network segments typically connect to the central backbone device by means of a hub, switch, or router. Because only a single,central backbone device is used, cabling is greatly reduced. Furthermore, additional connecting devices are not required. A collapsed backbone can result in significant cost savings. Backplane: is an internal, high-speed communications bus that is used in place of the connecting cables found in a distributed backbone. Because fiber-optic cabling is used to connect network segments to the collapsed backbone’s backplane, long distances are possible. With fiber-optic cabling, network segments may be widely scattered across a building or even a campus. Backbone Fault Tolerance: is the capability of a technology to recover in the event of error, failure, or some other unexpected event that disrupts organizational communications and functions. Should the backbone fail for some reason, internetworking may no longer be possible. In such an event, business could come to a standstill and, depending on the recovery time, irreparable damage may occur. However, if fault tolerance has been built into the backbone, internetworking will likely still be possible. Fault tolerance will determine its ability to survive an error, damage, or some other unforeseen circumstance. Redundant Backbone: Should one backbone become unavailable, the other can still be used for internetworking traffic. Furthermore, using a redundant backbone also allows for the load balancing of internetworking traffic. By placing half of the network segments on each backbone, internetworking traffic is shared, or balanced, across the backbones, resulting in improved communications performance. It is also VERY expensive. Wiring Closet: The patch panel is usually housed in the wiring closet. The wiring closet may also contain servers that provide resources across the enterprise. In a multifloor design, wiring closets are usually placed one above the other. Placing the wiring closets in vertical alignment greatly facilitates their connection. Data Center: usually moderately to largely spaced and house all of the necessary networking equipment for the entire enterprise in a central location. As with wiring closets, data centers should be tightly secured and environmentally appropriate for the equipment they house. The data center may contain routers, switches, servers, and even network segment hubs that connect individual devices to their network segment. Rack: Hubs, Servers, Switches, Routers are bolted to them. Packet Errors: Related to Early Collisions and Late Collisions Early Collisions: Collisions in an Ethernet network are to be expected, and the collisions themselves are not a problem. However, when too many collisions occur, say, 5 percent or more of the total packets, then corrective measures are needed. If this happens too often, the segment network may have to be split. Late Collisions: can be caused by excessive cable lengths. Another potential cause is the use of too many repeaters. Late collisions can result in lost packets that require retransmission by higher-level protocols. Runts: Too small of a packet, may result from a defective NIC. They are also caused when a transmitting device stops transmission in the middle of a packet due to the detection of a collision. Runts can never be entirely eliminated, because they result from normal collisions, but when the number of runts is greater than the monitored number of collisions, a problem is indicated, may be caused by a defective NIC. Giants: Too large of a packet, and usually caused by a jabbering NIC. Jabbering: NIC is one that is transmitting continuously and incorrectly. Unlike runts, giants are not the result of a normal Ethernet operation, and therefore indicate a definite problem. Whereas a bad NIC is the mostly likely cause of a giant, another hardware device may also be faulty or a cable segment may be defective. If a NIC or cable segment is found to be the cause of the problem, the best solution is to remove and discard the failing component and replace it with a new one. Broadcast Storm: When the total broadcast traffic reaches or exceeds a rate of 126 packets per second, a broadcast storm results. The major problem with such a storm is that it is self-sustaining, resulting in a flood of garbage packets that eventually consume all network bandwidth, preventing any other valid communications from occurring. SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Services): supports the exchange of data between LANs in different parts of a city or between network segments over a large campus. SMDS is a packet-switched datagram service for high-speed MAN traffic. SMDSIP (Switched Multimegabit Data Services Interface Protocol): provides for three layers of protocols that define user information frame structuring, addressing, error control, and overall transport. SMDSIP Level 1 defines the physical interfaces and the type of trans- mission medium and signaling system used. SMDSIP Level 2 provides an access method, defined in IEEE Project 802.6, that is referred to as a distributed queue dual bus (DQDB). (It is beyond the scope of this text to go into the details of DQDB; however, it is interesting to note that the access method used is not contention or token passing, but one called distributed queues.) SMDSIP Level 3 accepts user data and adds header and trailer information to it for processing by the SMDS network.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Stereotyping In Advertising In Mauritius Media Essay

Stereotyping In Advertising In Mauritius Media Essay This study will concentrate on the females attitude towards stereotyping associated with women in advertising. The controversy over the portrayal of women in advertising continues today. More and more, women are taking on a broader role and responsibilities in society. However, as we cross the threshold of this new decade, there is a significant question that needs to be answered. While the debate over whether or not advertisers portray women realistically bear on, the fundamental concern is how women feel and respond to the portrayal of females in advertising, despite of the action or inaction of advertisers to effect change. Do females believe that advertisers portray women in realistic ways or do they believe they are shown in stereotypical roles of housewives and/or sex objects? This study examines the attitudes, feeling and perception of female consumers toward the portrayal of women in advertising. Purpose of research The purpose of this study is to analyse Mauritian females attitude towards the stereotyping of women in advertising. More specifically, the primary goals of this study are: (1) To investigate about womens perceptions in relation to the stereotyping of females in advertising. (2) To examine if women believe that advertisers depict females in stereotypical roles of housewives and/or sex objects. (3) To explore the veracity of Cultivation Theory on Mauritian females. (4) To find out whether stereotypes have harmful effects on women themselves. (5) To investigate if the stereotyping of women in advertising affect the purchasing pattern of females. Research questions A vital step toward providing a sound theoretical foundation for the research project is the development of concrete research questions and hypotheses. This process typically begins with a preliminary review of the existing literature for your topic. A research question poses an affiliation between two or more variables but phrases the relationship in terms of some question. -What group of females considers that women are being stereotype in advertising? -What type of portrayal of women in advertising is offensive to females? -What is the miss-representation of women in advertisement? -Do females consider that advertising suggest that women primary occupation is as homemakers? -Do female consider that women are portrayed as sex objects? -Do females feel that advertising does not really show women as they really are? -Are females persuaded to buy products or services if they are being advertising by women? -What are the negative effects that females experience when they are stereotyped in advertising? Hypotheses Once the research questions are firmly established the next step is to develop a set of hypotheses based on the questions posed by the study. A hypothesis is a declarative statement that attempts to predict the relationship between two or more variables based on statistical consideration. Hypotheses are numeric estimates of population value based on data collected from samples. Testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures in which the investigator draws inferences about the population from a study sample. In this study of Understanding females attitudes towards womens stereotyping in advertising in Mauritius, the hypotheses are as follows: Ho-Women believe that advertisers depict females in stereotypical roles of housewives and/or sex objects. H1-Women do not believe that advertisers depict females in stereotypical roles of housewives and/or sex objects. Ho-Stereotypes have harmful effects on women concerning their body image. H1- Stereotypes do not have harmful effects on women concerning their body image. Ho- Stereotyping of women in advertising affect the purchasing pattern of females. H1- Stereotyping of women in advertising does not affect the purchasing pattern of females. Chapter 2 Overview of Literature Review This chapter reviews the related literature that will include articles related to stereotyping of women in advertising, factors leading to stereotyping of women, how women are portrayed in advertisement, and how advertising influences females perception and behaviors. It will also examine the theoretical framework that will be used for the study presented in this research paper. Literature Review Introduction It has been argued that advertising over the yesteryears has not presented a pragmatic illustration of women and their roles in society. It is harmless to state that stereotypes exist and are a part of our lives. The advertisements from the 50à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ²s are not opposed from the advertisements broadcasted today in the present; reminiscing women where they belong: in the home, cleaning, mopping, baking and cooking, parenting, fostering, and looking sexually attractive. Stereotyping of Women in Advertising Stereotyping of women has been a main concern with media researchers. Studies have dealt with the portrayal of women in all forms of media. A close assessment of the literature on stereotyping of women in media revealed that each of these studies had its center of attention on at least one or more of the following categories (Shrikhande; 2003): 1) Women portrayed at domicile and with family 2) Women and occupation 3) Women and their age 4) Women and their physical appearance or attire 5) Women as product representatives or as product users 6) Women and stance The community acts according to these portrayal because they are considered socially acceptable. For instance, when people think of an advertisement for a household cleaner, what comes to mind, most likely, is a woman. It is also likely that the picture in peoples minds corresponds closely to what researchers have called the happy housewife stereotype. This is a stereotype that has been associated with the image of women in most print and television advertisements. Media is very effective at creating stereotypes because they are sometimes the only source of information we have about other groups and they often represent a distorted view of those groups (Straubhaar 2004). No matter what type of life a women lives, there will always be a certain stereotype about her within society. Women in commercials are confined into what roles they can play on television commercials. In most advertisements in which women act in, the commercial is set out to capture the interests of stereotypical womens hobbies and interests. A stereotype would be best described as when one ignores diversity and makes sweeping generalizations about a groups values, behaviour, and beliefs (Straubhaar 2004). Advertisements remain replicated in obsolete gender stereotypes by portraying women as having an ideal body image, eating disorders and acting as sex symbols. The debate over the portrayal of women in advertising continues today. One of the harshest criticisms of the way in which women are portrayed in television and print advertisements is that women are shown in an extremely contracted range of roles, with descriptions concentrated on the conventional occupations of housewife, a mother and secretary. Many studies have found support for this criticism (Bardwick et al., 1967; Courtney et al., 1971; Dominick et al., 1972; Ferrante, Haynes, Kingsley, 1988; Gilly, 1988; and Knill et al., 1981). Factors leading to stereotyping of women Early attitudes towards women Women have always been regarded as a creative source of human life. However, history reveals that they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a main cause of temptation and evil. For instance, in the Greek mythology, it was a woman, Pandora, who opened the forbidden box and brought plagues and misery to mankind. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men (Womens International Center, 1995). Ancient Christian theology conserved these conceptions. St. Jerome, a 4th-century Latin father of the Christian church, said: Woman is the gate of the devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in a word a perilous object. Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century Christian theologian, stated that woman was created to be mans helpmeet, but her unique role is in conception . . . since for other purposes men would be better assisted by other men (Womens International Center, 1995). In the East, the approach toward women was at first more favorable. In early India, for instance, women were not deprived of possessions rights or human freedoms by marriage. But after the evolution of Hinduism in India about the 500 BC, obedience of women toward men was compulsory Women had to walk in the rear of their husbands. Women could not have possession of property, and widows were not allowed to remarry (Womens International Center, 1995). In the fourteenth centuries women acquired more status when they were allowed to educate themselves and earn mastership in a variety of trades. Unfortunately womens status suffered a blow during the Renaissance as there were more restrictions on womens sexuality and political rights. Although women were learned and able to act as rulers, the dropping position of working women amplified the significance of womens contribution to the family. During the reformation womens status as wives and mothers was increased and they were controlled by their husbands (Womens International Center, 1995). Cultural images of women Merriam Webster defines culture as the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. Culture ideas, symbols, norms and values occupy a major role in the conception of women images and the demarcation of gender roles. To understand the images of femininity the Indian society can be taken as an example. India, a heterogeneous society, demonstrates incompatible women images. The standardize model image of Indian womanhood has disclosed significant consistency. Images of women have not remained stagnant and have been subject to various metaphors. Nevertheless, some basic models have prevalent approval. Diverse cultural images of women: Pativrata- absolute devotion to husband, glorified motherhood, Bharat Mata Image. The insight of diverse categories of women is specifically formed by the commonly accepted female images and stereotypes in the society (Bhargava 2009). Moreover, at the interpersonal stage within the family situation, these images are often imposing in a variety of ways. Indian girls grow up with deep rooted sense of apprehension and anxiety which not only confines their social mobility in the everyday life but also often psychologically cripples them to confront the afflictions of life in general and oppose gender based discrimination in particular. These gender divisions, flowing nearly straight from the popular imagery fostered these images in most Indian families. It can be stated that possibly most significantly; these images leave a profound imprint upon womens self-perception (Bhargava 2009). Women in advertisement Advertising has been a major goal of attack and investigation. The fundamental enlightenment for the significant focus on sex role portrayal in advertising lies in the close relationship, which prevails among advertising, the consumer goods industry and the vital economic role of women as consumers. Usually it is exhibit in advertisement a womans ambition in life is to magnetise and achieve a man:-women are publicised in advertising as forever young and attractive. They are repeatedly depicted as sexual objects. Women in advertisements are constrained to the home and isolated from other women outside home, man is her preferred partner. Domesticity is the next role of two dimensional image of femininity in advertising (Bhargava 2009). Moreover, there are open obscene advertisements relating to sexual stereotypes that are established in different media. The Indian description of sex stereotyping would have all women carrying themselves like legendary sita and savitri- docile, submissive, sacrificing, emotional, fearful, and incompetent of coherent action, their most important duty being wives, partners and mothers. What is being canvas here is gross counterfeit modern lifestyle which is detached from the common Indian womans struggle to survive completely negating and never inquiring her reality (Bhargava 2009). Stereotyping of women in Television Commercials One of the earliest studies that discussed about the image of women in television commercials was by Bardwick and Schumann (1967). Bardwick and Schumann (1967) examined male and female role portrayals in television commercials and settled on the fact that women are portrayed first and foremost as homebound or as housewives. Courtney and Whipple (1974) analysed the stereotyping of women in television commercials and identify major distinctness between men and women. Women were over-symbolised in advertisements for cosmetics and were less likely to appear in advertisements for cars, trucks and related products. 75 percent of all advertisements using women were for products found in the kitchen or bathroom, strengthening the stereotype that a womans place is at home. Women were typically portrayed in house settings rather than business settings in contrast to men. Women were represented as reliant on men and were looked at above all as sexual objects. Courtney and Whipple (1974) described sexual objects as, where women had no role in the commercial, but emerged as a piece of decoration. Researchers found that 87% of voiceovers were male and only 6% of voiceovers were done using females (Courtney Whipple, 1974). Later studies confirmed this (Culley Bennett, 1976; Dominick Rauch, 1972; Lundstorm Sciglimpaglia, 1977; McArthur Resko, 1975; O.Donnell O.Donnell, 1978; Schneider Schneider, 1979). Women were most prone to be characterised not by job-related or other types of roles, but in roles that defined them in terms of their relationships with others, i.e. as spouse, girlfriend, parent or friend (McArthur and Resko, 1975). Moreover, it was discovered that women were portrayed as product users in 86% of advertisements and as product authorities in only 14% of the commercials, compared to men who were depicted overwhelmingly as authorities (McArthur and Resko, 1975). Browne (1998) analysed sex role stereotyping in television commercials aimed at children in the United States and Australia. Her results are in general parallel to those of earlier studies and point out significant gender stereotyping (Macklin Kolbe, 1984; McArthur Eisen, 1976; Sternglanz Serbin, 1974). Her outcome specify that boys appeared in greater numbers in the television commercials, were assign more dominant, dynamic and aggressive roles compared to girls. Gender role reinforcement was detected at the level of body language and facial expressions; girls were portrayed as reserved, giggly, improbable to assert control, less active and helpful. Stereotyping of women in Print Advertisements Chafetz, Lorence and Larosa (1993) analysed six trade publications to evaluate if there had been an impact in female participation in professional vocations and whether an editorial personnel with more women has helped reduce gender stereotyping of professional women. Chafetz, Lorence and Larosa (1993) found that greater relative numbers of women in the occupation over time and an increased share of women in the editorial staff have resulted in portraying women as professionals, confident, independent and attractive. Gender composition of editorial staff had a consistent and a positive effect on how women are portrayed in advertising. However, women are still portrayed less favorably in male-oriented professional publications. Chafetz, Lorence and Larosa.s (1993) findings also suggest that the non-advertisement visuals appear to be conveying a decreasing level of gender stereotyping, because such visuals often appear with stories about work being done by those who practice the target ed occupation or are closely related to it, hence encouraging gender equitable treatment. Perception about womens stereotyping in advertising The Womens Liberation Movement put pressure on marketers to cautiously study how women were portrayed in advertisements. Many studies (Courtney Lockeretz, 1971, Wagner Banos, 1973) analysed womens role in advertising, but they are mainly content analyses. Wortzel and Frisbie found that there was no consistent preference for a specific role for all product categories. Women tended to choose their preferred role based on the class of the product being advertised. In addition, it was found that women with positive attitudes toward the movement, considered modern or progressive, did not reject traditional female role portrayals. Women were satisfied and accepting of traditional role portrayals in advertisements, regardless of their thoughts on Womens Liberation. Studies indicated that for both traditional and modern women, more favorable attitudes resulted from consistency between the ad role portrayal and their role orientation. The most favorable attitudes were from traditional women exposed to the traditional role portrayal. The least favorable attitudes were found by modern women who viewed the traditional role portrayal (Leigh, 1987). Mode rn woman is supposedly more free with choices to exercise and this is apparent in the slick advertisements where women have free body language and seem more open, articulate and more sexual (Aruna, Nidhi Kotwal Shradha Sahni, 2008) Females perception about stereotyping of women in advertising A Canadian research carried out by Susan DeYoung and F.G. Crane shows that that a more realistic portrayal of women in advertising is not only desirable but fundamental in a modern marketplace. Women do not only want a more realistic portrayal but believe that they deserve it (Susan DeYoung and F.G. Crane, 1992). A predominantly imperative finding in this study is the fact that the attitudes held by women cut across age, income, education and marital status categories. Therefore, advertisers cannot simply overlook complaints about the portrayal of women in advertising to a small group of liberal feminists. The concern seems to be widespread. This study is a replication of an American study which was conduct 10 years ago prior to the Canadian study. The following table shows the attitudes and perception of women towards stereotyping of women in advertising. CANADIAN STUDY 1990 VERSUS AMERICAN STUDY 1979 Percentage agreeing with statement Canada 1990 US 1979 1. Advertising suggests a womans place is in the home 51 60 2. Advertising I see does not show women as they really are 77 60 3. Advertising suggests that women are dependent on men 51 50 4. Advertising shows women mainly as sex objects 80 60 5. Advertising suggests women do not make important decisions 63 82 6. Advertising suggests women do not do important things 46 60 7. I am more sensitive than I used to be to the portrayal of women in advertising 54 55 8. I find the portrayal of women in advertising to be offensive 50 60 9. If a product I buy is advertised in a way that I find offensive to women, I would stop buying it 51 31 10. If a new product uses advertising that I find offensive to women, I would not buy it, even if it was a good product 48 28 Source: Females attitudes toward the portrayal of women in advertising: a Canadian study 1992 Theoretical Framework Cultivation Theory Cultivation theory also referred to as the cultivation hypothesis or cultivation analysis was an approach developed by Professor George Gerbner, dean of the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania (Chandler, 1995). The purpose of the Cultural Indicators project was to identify and track the cultivated effects of television on viewers (Buchanan et al, 2010). A research by Buchanan (2010 cited by Miller 2005) showed that they were concerned with the effects of television programming on the attitudes and behaviours of the American public (Buchanan et al, 2010). There are various communication theories, but Gerbners Cultivation Theory is above all pertinent to numerous situations. It focuses on the suggestion that television plays a fundamental role in viewers perceptions of the humanity by touching attitudes, beliefs, and ways of thinking (Lindquist, 2006). Thus it is harmless to state that through television, people are exposed to various advertising that are typically stereotyping women in a negative manner. The severity of these effects depends on the amount of television an individual watches each day (Lindquist, 2006). Gerbners Cultivation theory suggests that television can alter or cultivate a viewers perception of social reality (Buchanan et al, 2010). It is harmless to state that according to Gerbner, a viewers belief of reality is shaped by the amount of continual exposure to television combined with media messages over a long period of time. Application of the Theory to the Study An extremely widespread problem in our society today is the misconstrued perception many women and adolescent girls have about their bodies. The media portrays thin bodies as being beautiful and desirable, yet most of the women on television and in advertisements can be considered to be dangerously underweight when looking at them from a medical perspective (Lindquist, 2006). Consumer culture and media imagery have a pervasive and powerful influence on girls at a critical developmental stage; American girls are socialized to cement and signal identity through visual symbols that include visible consumption of prestige goods or a particular body presentation that conforms to cultural aesthetic ideals (Becker, 2004). A research by Becker (2004 cited by Gordon 2000 and Pipher 1994) suggest that there are several reasons to believe that adolescence places girls at particular risk as participants in consumer culture. For instance, many have suggested that adolescence is a time when American girls are challenged by simultaneous conflicting cultural demands to maintain both a trajectory of achievement and the requirements of female roles; such conflict, if severe and unresolved, may manifest in a variety of difficulties, including an eating disorder (Becker. 2004). The concept of mainstreaming that Gerbner discusses can be linked to this problem regarding females and poor body image. According to the Cultivation Theory, heavy viewers of television will experience the effects of mainstreaming, where their attitudes and opinions are essentially created by information and portrayals they receive from the television. In the media where womens beauty and body perfection are defined by emaciated figures, it is only natural that heavy-viewing females begin to have their attitudes shaped by this ideal. They begin to be affected by the reality constructed on the television more than the reality of the world around them. It has been discovered that heavy-viewing young women glamorize weight loss and dieting due to what they see on the television (Harrison Hefner, 2006). In fact, the study found that television viewing [is] linked to subsequent increases in eating pathology (Harrison Hefner, 2006). Another example of this idea is a study that was conduc ted in which the impact of television being introduced to young women in a rural community in Fiji was investigated. The young womens opinions about their bodies in terms of weight had been drastically influenced by the television and had urges to reshape their bodies in order to fit in with the ideals that were presented to them through the television (Lindquist, 2006). Limitation of The Cultivation Theory to the study Even though this theory provides us with a unique way of looking at television as a highly influential part to stereotyping of women in advertising, it omitted some aspects that also seem to have an impact on the perception of people. The Cultivation Theory ignores the influence of other forms of media, such as commercials, magazines, newspapers, music, advertisements, and many others (Lindquist, 2006). Relating back to the issue of womens obsession with thinness, it has been discovered that both print and electronic media exposure are associated with an increased drive for thinness (Harrison Hefner, 2006). Commercials, magazines, and printed advertisements are heavily lined with figures that maintain the negative body image that many women have. While these aspects of the media are most likely cultivating similar attitudes that are produced by the television, it is possible that they have some sort of other effect on womens perceptions of themselves. The attitudes that have been co nstructed for people by the media cannot be based solely on television. Female Body Image and the Mass Media Perspectives on How Women Internalise the Ideal Beauty Standard Mass medias use of unrealistic models sends an implicit message that distorts the healthy body image and it makes it thorny for females to attain any stage of satisfaction with their physical appearance. There has been a plethora of study to show that women are negatively affected by regular exposure to models that execute the unrealistic media ideal of beauty; nevertheless, it is not clear how these images in fact come to affect womens satisfaction with their physical appearance (Serdar [no date]). Female Body Image Body image is a complicated aspect of the self-concept that concerns an individuals perceptions and feelings about their body and physical appearance (Cash Pruzinsky, 2002). Females of all ages seem to be particularly vulnerable to disturbance in this area; body dissatisfaction in women is a well-documented phenomenon in mental health literature. Researchers have called females concerns with their physical appearance normative discontent; implying that body dissatisfaction affects almost all women at some level (Striegel-Moore Franko, 2002, p. 183; Tiggemann Slater, 2004). Females have been found to experience dissatisfaction with physical appearance at a much higher rate than males (Striegel-Moore Franko, 2002), and women of all ages and sizes display body image disturbance. It appears that body dissatisfaction is more closely linked to appearance-related cognitions than physical reality. People are at higher risk to display disturbed body image if they hold dysfunctional belief s and cognitions about their physical appearance, regardless of body mass (Butters Cash, 1987). Concerns with the development of disordered eating are an especially vital issue because such patterns have been found to be a major predictor of clinical eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction and preoccupation with food, shape, and weight are some of the core features in the diagnostic criteria of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Estimates of the prevalence of such disorders vary, but most state that 3% to 10% of females ages 15 to 29 could be considered anorexic or bulimic. Most individuals who develop an eating disorder start with what is considered typical dieting behavior. With increasing numbers of females reporting disturbed body image and engaging in dieting behavior, there has been a significant level of concern about the increasing incidence of eating disorders. This is especially true of individuals who display early signs of body image disturbance and disordered eating (Polivy Herman, 2002). Images of Women in the Media Images in the media today project an unrealistic and even dangerous standard of feminine beauty that can have a powerful influence on the way women view themselves. From the perspective of the mass media, thinness is idealized and expected for women to be considered attractive. Images in advertisements, television, and music usually portray the ideal woman as tall, white, and thin, with a tubular body, and blonde hair (Dittmar Howard, 2004; Lin Kulik, 2002; Polivy Herman, 2004; Sands Wardle, 2003; Schooler, Ward, Merriwether, Caruthers, 2004; Tiggemann Slater, 2003). The media is littered with images of females who fulfill these unrealistic standards, making it seem as if it is normal for women to live up to this ideal. Dittmar and Howard (2004) made this statement regarding the prevalence of unrealistic media images: Ultra-thin models are so prominent that exposure to them becomes unavoidable and chronic, constantly reinforcing a discrepancy for most women and girls between their actual size and the ideal body (p. 478). Only a very small percentage of women in Western countries meet the criteria the media uses to define beautiful (Dittmar Howard, 2004; Thompson Stice, 2001); yet so many women are repeatedly exposed to media images that send the message that a woman is not acceptable and attractive if she do not match societys ultra-thin standard of beauty (Dittmar Howard, 2004, p. 478). In recent years, womens body sizes have grown larger (Spitzer, Henderson, Zivian, 1999), while societal standards of body shape have become much thinner. This discrepancy has made it increasingly difficult for most women to achieve the current sociocultural ideal. Such a standard of perfection is unrealistic and even dangerous. Many of the models shown on television, advertisements, and in other forms of popular media are approximately 20% below ideal body weight, thus meeting the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (Dittmar Howard, 2004). Research has repeatedly shown that constant exposure to thin models fosters body image concerns and disordered eating in many females. Almost all forms of the media contain unrealistic images, and the negative effects of such idealistic portrayals have been demonstrated in numerous studies. Schooler et al. (2004) found that women who reported greater exposure to television programming during adolescence were more likely to experience high levels of body image disturbance than females that did not report such levels of exposure. In addition, certain types of programming seem to elicit higher levels of body dissatisfaction in females. A study done by Tiggemann and Slater (2003) found that women who viewed music videos that contained thin models experienced increased levels of negative mood and body image disturbance. Music videos seem to send a particularly direct message that woman should live up to the sociocultural ideal; women portrayed are almost always direct representations of w hat our culture considers beautiful. In addition, music television is an increasingly influential form of media, especially for adolescent and college females. Mainstream magazines and advertisements are another potent source of idealized images of women. This is disturbing because many women, especially adolescents, have been found to read such material on a regular basis. Findings of one study indicate that 83% of teenage girls reported reading fashion magazines for about 4.3 hours

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Global Warming Controversy Essay -- Climate Change, Air Pollution

The globe is being rocked by extreme weather and the hottest temperatures on record. As the average global temperature soars, there are floods, droughts, unusually cold winters, forest fires, and huge storms. Are all of these horrors being caused by human-induced global warming? The source of global warming is a very controversial topic. Some scientists think that global warming is a natural part of the Earth’s cycle because the Earth has always had natural heating and cooling cycles. Other scientists believe that global warming is caused by humans dut to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the accumulation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide released from the burning of fossil fuels. These scientists believe humans are the source and solution to the problem. Global warming, regardless of the source, is causing many adverse effects to the planet, such as the affect it causes on aquatic animals and the melting icecaps. Scientists believe that by cutting our carbon emissions through political action and finding alternative sources of energy we can stop the damages of global warming. The world today is divided in two different points of view regarding global warming. Although most people claim that recent human activities and the use of fossil fuel cause global warming, there are also a few scientists who claim otherwise. According to these scientists, global warming is not caused by humans and it is just another natural cycle the Earth has been going through since the beginning. What’s more, it works quite the opposite of what environmentalists are saying. Global warming won’t be harmful and actually will benefit the humanity, as it had been about 1000 years ago. Global warming has become popular polit... ...points ®. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2006. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Michigan State University Libraries. 28 Oct. 2014. "WARMING SIGNS. " Science World 6 Mar. 2011: 18-21. Education Module. ProQuest. MSU Library, East Lansing, Michigan. 22 Oct. 2014. William D Nordhaus. "'The Question of Global Warming': An Exchange. " The New York Review of Books 25 Sep. 2014: 92. Research Library Core. ProQuest. MSU Library, East Lansing, Michigan. 22 Oct. 2014. Williams, Nicole. â€Å"Al Gore’s Personal Energy Use Is His Own â€Å"Inconvenient Truth†Ã¢â‚¬  Tennessee Center for Policy Research. 26 Feb 2007

Friday, July 19, 2019

Internet Usage :: Essays Papers

Internet Usage Are Mainstream Scientific Researchers Using the Internet to its full Multimedia Potential? As a research presentation medium, the Internet has been designed to offer vastly more to publishers than easy text access. It's astoundingly simple to incorporate photographs, diagrams, illustrations, sounds, animations, movies and all kinds of non-text content into a website using today's user-friendly web development software. This subject, Networks and Multimedia in Science and Technology, has been designed to open its students' eyes to the exciting multimedia possibilities available that can communicate research findings more accessibly, effectively and concisely than plain text. A look through some of the research presented by many of these students, found linked to the NAMIST CONFERENCE PAGE, makes it clear that well-designed web sites can make even the most potentially boring topics (statistics? butterflies?) attractive and interesting through the use of intuitive structures and appropriate multimedia. However, a browse through the web site of Australia's principal government-funded Scientific organisation, the CSIRO AUSTRALIA page, reveals myriads of research papers published almost exclusively in text-only format. The official 1998 Nobel Prize award announcement for the field of Physics includes some diagrams, but nothing one would not find in a 1970's textbook. Many of the links from american science organisation's science resource page,, have a small amount of graphical content, but only one site I found, - a site dedicated to volcano research - made consistent use of movie files, sounds and animation, and this site was filed under "fun for kids" on sigmaxi's resource list. I believe there are many reasons for the scientific community's apparent dislike for multimedia. Not a small factor could be the possible perception that research that is presented in a flashy, colourful way is lacking in substance, that researchers who spend large amounts of time on presentation are compromising the research itself. The traditional presentation of research has been through publication in scientific journals, not renowned for their attention to visual appeal, and the use of extensive visual or multimedia assistance to focus the reader's attention could be viewed as condescending. Furthermore, making use of the available technology, whilst relatively easy using today's advanced, user-friendly development software, is nonetheless far more time-consuming than the use of simple text. In the context of a scientific report, visual cues are far more labour intensive to include than equivalent textual explanations in most cases. Furthermore many researchers are unfamiliar with the techniques required to produce them, and more willing to attempt written explanations than commission graphic artworks.