Monday, September 30, 2019
Managers can look at past managerial methods in order to make decisions that will best suit themselves and help their organisations, as well as giving their organisation a competitive advantage (Boddy D. , 2005). In this essay I will be arguing against the proposition that knowledge of management history is irrelevant to modern practice. To show that management history is important for modern managers, I am going to discuss and focus on a number of historical management techniques and theories and how they can be useful. I will talk about how these management techniques and theories are relevant with modern management. The first approach I will look at is the classical approach. Too elaborate on this theory I will split it in to two areas; the scientific management theory and the administrative principals. Firstly I will discuss the scientific approach; where I will talk about Frederick Winslow Taylor and his theory on the importance of workers being trained and the importance of the selection process (Bartol & Martin, 1994). The next branch is the administrative approach involving theorist Henri Fayol and how his theories have been well respected and become a big part of modern management today. To finish off my argument I will be talking about the behavioural side of management by relating to Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs. Through looking into these methods I hope to give the reader a good understanding as to why I believe historical management has had a big impact on modern management today and will continue to do so in the future. The first discussion will be based around the classical approach, an approach to management that is seen as a way of managers making decisions based around economic concern. There are three main areas within the classical approach, these being scientific management, administrative principles and bureaucratic organisation. However, throughout my argument I will be focusing only on two of these approaches, thus being the scientific approach and the administrative principals. The two main theorists who are heavily involved in these consist of Frederick Winslow Taylor, whom was the founder of scientific management and Henri Fayol whom has had a big influence on the administrative principals. I will also mention Mary Parker Follet whom has also had a big impact on the administrative principals. (Schermerhorn, Davidson, Poole, Simon, Woods, & Chau, 2011). I have chosen to focus only on these two areas of classical management as they are well related to my argument that historical management is relevant to modern management. TheÃ first approach I will be discussing is the classical approach, where we will first be talking about scientific management. The man behind the scientific management theory is known as Frederick Winslow Taylor. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s main contributions to management thought and practice ha ve come through his idea of the scientific management theory and approach. In 1911, Frederick Winslow Taylor published his work, Ã¢â¬Ëthe principles of scientific management.Ã¢â¬â¢ These principles described how applying the scientific method to the management of workers could greatly improve productivity through the analysis and synthesis of workflows. It is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, improving work productivity (Schermerhorn, Davidson, Poole, Simon, Woods, & Chau, 2011). To back my argument that management history is important for modern managers we see Henry Ford come into the picture. The ideas of Taylor were continued through well-known car manufacturer Henry Ford who went on to replace his workers with machinery, generally when it came to doing things such as heavy lifting (Daft, 2005). Scientific management has four guiding action principles, these being; to develop a Ã¢â¬ËscienceÃ¢â¬â¢ for every job that includes rules of motion, standardize work processes and appropriate working conditions. Also to carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job, to carefully train them and give them proper incentives to cooperate with the job Ã¢â¬ËscienceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Schermerhorn, Davidson, Poole, Simon, Woods, & Chau, 2011). Frank Gilbreth whom worked as a bricklayer put Taylors ideas into place and created a method that allowed the number of movements to lay a brick reduce from 18 to 2 therefore going on to increase the rate from 120-350 bricks (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). Taylors work is still being used in modern day and his concepts are well thought of, his ideas are clearly seen at the roots of management today. Scientific management has proven to be a very beneficial way for companies to develop and improve their approach towards business (Helms & Cengage, 2 006). The next part of the classical approach I will be talking about is the administrative principals. The administrative principalÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to management came about from a man named Henri Fayol. Most management textbooks published today acknowledge Fayol to be the father of the administrative theory (Daft, 2005). Fayol was a French mining engineer, whom gradually worked his way up the ranks until he was manager of up to 10000 employees for over 30 years. The administrative principlesÃ involved issues such as departmentalization, span of control, exceptions to routine, and hierarchy. An example of the administrative principals being used in modern management can be seen through major fast food franchise McDonalds. The efficient production of their fast food is crucial towards customer satisfaction and organisation success therefore FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s principles come in use for this systematic type of organisational structure. Here we see another part of historical management being used in a very successful franchise within the modern era. Mary Parker Follet was also a contributor to administrative principles. Follet believed that growth and success would come from the direct interaction between members of the organisational groups achieving common goals and objectives. She also displayed a general understanding of groups and showed commitment to human co-operation, creating ideas that are still relevant today (Schermerhorn, Davidson, Poole, Simon, Woods, & Chau, 2011). The next part of my argument belongs to that of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs. Abraham Maslow has identified 5 important needs that individuals should aim to require in order to positively influence their contribution within the workplace. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is often represented as a pyramid, with the larger, lower levels representing the essential needs, and the upper levels representing the need for self-actualization. The first need starts from the bottom of the table, this being psychological. Psychological needs are our basic needs, needs such as food and water. Safety needs are next, expressing an emphasis on the need for security and protection. Self-belongingness is the next need and falls under the category of social needs and feeling as though you are a part of something, a community, or group of some type. This is then followed by self-esteem needs which will mean you are given respect and recognition for your work, leaves the employee with a sense of competency. The last need of all and the highest need in MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is self-actualisation. This need looks at employees achieving self-fulfilments and goals, on the completion of certain tasks employees allow themselves to grow in confidence by using their abilities to their full extent (Davidson, Griffin, Simon, & Woods, 2009). Maslow believes that the only reason that people would not move well in direction of self-actualization is because of hindrances placed in their way. These days we are beginning to see MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in many businesses as a way of motivating employees. Managers are using MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ theory within the work place to help give their employees motivation and something to work towards and achieve, it is a tool managers use to help point employees in the right direction (Davidson, Griffin, Simon, & Woods, 2009). A prime example of this is volunteers working for non for profit organisations. With the fact that there is no money involved in volunteer works it is important for these volunteers to have the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory approach merged into their business setting as well as a part of their work ethic. This is vital in order to feel as though they are reaping rewards from the hard work they are putting in, as in volunteer work, money is non-existent. Managers also now tend to change and mix up the way they are motivating employees by giving different rewards and motivation stimuli in order to keep volunteers and employees happy to stay with the organisation (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). As I have stated, it is clear too see that the two types of classical approaches discussed both have an impact on modern management. With Frederick Winslow Taylor and his theory of scientific management we can see that an important aspect is to obtain maximum wealth for both the employee and the employer. The example of Frank Gilbreth and his techniques used with bricklaying help us understand that positive outcomes come from Taylors theory and we are able too see that his theory has not gone un noticed and is infact a part of modern management. The same goes with the next part to classical management, this being the administrative principals. We again see administrative principles being applied to modern management. Our example based around this theory being major fast food franchise McDonalds. Ã¢â¬ËThe efficient production of their fast food is crucial towards customer satisfaction and organisation success.Ã¢â¬â¢ McDonalds is one of the largest franchises in the world today and will continue to be for years to come, and it is worthy proof showing the administrative principals involvement within such a successful franchise within modern management. The last theory I discussed was that thought by Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of needs. This theory is a vital part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and can help achieve a certain degree of self-belief within an employee as well as a manager or employer. It is a useful tool for managers to keep employees motivated and feel as though they are achieving. Throughout this essay I believe I have been able to support my argument as to why I believe that historical management is relevant to modern management. References Bartol, K. M., & Martin, D. C. (1994). Management. Michigan: McGraw-Hill series in management. Blake, A, M. (2010) One hundred years after The principles of Scientific Management. One Hundred Years after The Principles of Scientific Management, 1-9 Boddy, D. (2005). Management an introduction 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. Daft, R, S. (2005). Management second pacific rim edition. Florida: Dryden press. Davidson, P., Griffin, R. W., Simon, A., & Woods, P. (2009). Management 4th Australasian Edition. Milton: John Wiley & Sons Australia. Hatch, M. J., & Cunliffe, A. L. (2006). Organization Theory. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Helms, M. M., & Cengage, G. (2006). Chain of Command Principle Retrieved 22 August, 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia/chain-command-principle Schermerhorn, J. R., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Simon, A., Woods, P., & Chau, S. L. (2011). Management (4th Asia-Pacific ed.). Milton, Queensland: John Wiley and Sons.
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GROWTH OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY Ã¢â¬â POST LIBERALIZATION INTRODUCTION : The journey of insurance liberalization process in India is now several years old. The first major milestone in this journey has been the passing of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. This along with amendments to the Insurance Act 1983, LIC and GIC Acts paves the way for the entry of private players and possibly the privatization of the hitherto public monopolies LIC and GIC. Opening up of insurance to private sector including foreign participation has resulted into various opportunities and challenges. CONCEPT OF INSURANCE : In our daily life, whenever there is uncertainly there is an involvement of risk. The instinct of security against such risk is one of the basic motivating forces for determining human attitudes. As a sequel to this quest for security, the concept of insurance must have been born. The urge to provide insurance or protection against the loss of life and property must have promoted people to make some sort of sacrifice willingly in order to achieve security through collective co-operation. In this sense, the story of insurance is probably as old as the story of mankind. LIFE INSURANCE : n particular provides protection to household against the risk of premature death of its income earning member. Life insurance in modern times also provides protection against other life related risks such as that of longevity (i. e. risk of outliving of source of income) and risk of disabled and sickness (health insurance). The products provide for longevity are pensions and annu ities (insurance against old age). Non-life insurance provides protection against accidents, property damage, theft and other liabilities. Non-life insurance contracts are typically shorter in duration as compared to life insurance contracts. The bundling together of risk coverage and saving is peculiar of life insurance. Life insurance provides both protection and investment. Insurance is a boon to business concerns. Insurance provides short range and long range relief. The short-term relief is aimed at protecting the insured from loss of property and life by distributing the loss amongst large number of persons through the medium of professional risk bearers such as insurers. It enables a businessman to face an unforeseen loss and, therefore, he need not worry about the possible loss. The long-range object being the economic and industrial growth of the country by making an investment of huge funds available with insurers in the organized industry and commerce. GENERAL INSURANCE : Prior to nationalizations of General insurance industry in 1973 the GIC Act was passed in the Parliament in 1971, but it came into effect in 1973. There was 107 General insurance companies including branches of foreign companies operating in the country upon nationalization, these companies were amalgamated and grouped into the following four subsidiaries of GIC such as National Insurance Co. Ltd. , Calcutta; The New India Assurance Co. Ltd. , Mumbai; The Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd. , New Delhi and United India Insurance Co. Ltd. , Chennai and Now delinked. General insurance business in India is broadly divided into fire, marine and miscellaneous GIC apart from directly handling Aviation and Reinsurance business administers the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme, Personal Accident Insurance, Social Security Scheme etc. The GIC and its subsidiaries in keeping with the objective of nationalization to spread the message of insurance far and wide and to provide insurance protection to weaker section of the society are making efforts to design new covers and also to popularize other non-traditional business. LIBERALIZATION OF INSURANCE : The comprehensive regulation of insurance business in India was brought into effect with the enactment of the Insurance Act, 1983. It tried to create a strong and powerful supervision and regulatory authority in the Controller of Insurance with powers to direct, advise, investigate, register and liquidate insurance companies etc. However, consequent upon the nationalization of insurance business, most of the regulatory functions were taken away from the Controller of Insurance and vested in the insurers themselves. The Government of India in 1993 had set up a high powered committee by R. N. Malhotra, former Governor, Reserve Bank of India, to examine the structure of the insurance industry and recommend changes to ake it more efficient and competitive keeping in view the structural changes in other parts of the financial system on the country. Malhotra Committee's Recommendations The committee submitted its report in January 1994 recommending that private insurers be allowed to co-exist along with government companies like LIC and GIC companies. This recommendation had been prompted by several factors such as ne ed for greater deeper insurance coverage in the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy for infrastructural development. Liberalization of the insurance sector is at least partly driven by fiscal necessity of tapping the big reserve of savings in the economy. Committee's recommendations were as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Raising the capital base of LIC and GIC up to Rs. 200 crores, half retained by the government and rest sold to the public at large with suitable reservations for its employees. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Private sector is granted to enter insurance industry with a minimum paid up capital of Rs. 100 crores. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Foreign insurance be allowed to enter by floating an Indian company preferably a joint venture with Indian partners. Steps are initiated to set up a strong and effective insurance regulatory in the form of a statutory autonomous board on the lines of SEBI. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limited number of private companies to be allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed to operate in both lines of insurance (life or non-life). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) is delinked form GIC to function as a separate statuary body under necessary supervision by the insurance regulatory authority. Ã¢â¬ ¢All insurance companies be treated on equal footing and governed by the provisions of insurance Act. No special dispensation is given to government companies. Ã¢â¬ ¢Setting up of a strong and effective regulatory body with independent source for financing before allowing private companies into sector. COMPETITION TO GOVERNMENT SECTOR: Government companies have now to face competition to private sector insurance companies not only in issuing various range of insurance products but also in various aspects in terms of customer service, channels of distribution, effective techniques of selling the products etc. privatization of the insurance sector has opened the doors to innovations in the way business can be transacted. New age insurance companies are embarking on new concepts and more cost effective way of transacting business. The idea is clear to cater to the maximum business at the lest cost. And slowly with time, the age-old norm prevalent with government companies to expand by setting up branches seems getting lost. Among the techniques that seem to catching up fast as an alternative to cater to the rural and social sector insurance is hub and spoke arrangement. These along with the participants of NGOs and Self Help Group (SHGs) have done with most of the selling of the rural and social sector policies. The main challenges is from the commercial banks that have vast network of branches. In this regard, it is important to mention here that LIC has entered into an arrangement with Mangalore based Corporations Bank to leverage their infrastructure for mutual benefit with the insurance monolith acquiring a strategic stake 27 per cent, Corporation Bank has decided to abandon its plans of promoting a life insurance company. The bank will act as a corporate agent for LIC in future and receive commission on policies sold through its branches. LIC with its branch network of close to 2100 offices will allow Corporation Bank to set up extension centers. ATMs or branches with in its premises. Corporation Bank would in turn implement an effective Cash Flow Management System for LIC. IRDA Act, 1999 Preamble of IRDA Act 1999 reads Ã¢â¬ËAn Act to provide for the establishment of an authority to protect the interests of holders of insurance policies, to regulate, to promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Section 14 of IRDA Act, lays the duties, powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the Authority shall include the following. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Issue to the applicant a certificate of registration, to renew, modify withdraw, suspend or cancel such registration. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To protect the interest of policy holders in all matters concerning nomination of policy, surrender value f policy, insurable interest, settlement of insurance claims, other terms and conditions of contract of insurance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying requisite qualification and practical training for insurance intermediates and agents. Specifying code of conduct for surveyors and loss assessors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promoting efficiency in the conduct of insurance business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promoting and regulating professional regulators connected with the insurance and reinsurance business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying the form and manner in which books of accounts will be maintained and statement of accounts rendered by insurers and insurance intermediaries. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Adjudication o f disputes between insurers and intermediates. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying the percentage of life insurance and general and general business to be undertaken by the insurers in rural or social sectors etc. Section 25 provides that Insurance Advisory Committee will be constituted and shall consist of not more than 25 members. Section 26 provides that Authority may in consultation with Insurance Advisory Committee make regulations consists with this Act and the rules made there under to carry the purpose of this Act. Section 29 seeks amendment in certain provisions of Insurance Act, 1938 in the manner as set out in First Schedule. The amendments to the Insurance Act are consequential in order to empower IRDA to effectively regulate, promote, and ensure orderly growth of the Insurance industry. Section 30 & 31seek to amend LIC Act 1956 and GIC Act 1972. IMPACT OF LIBERALIZATION While nationalized insurance companies have done a commendable job in extending volume of the business opening up of insurance sector to private players was a necessity in the context of liberalization of financial sector. If traditional infrastructural and semipublic goods industries such as banking, airlines, telecom, power etc. have significant private sector presence, continuing state monopoly in provision of insurance was indefensible and therefore, the privatization of insurance has been done as discussed earlier. Its impact has to be seen in the form of creating various opportunities and challenges. Opportunities 1. Privatization if Insurance was eliminated the monopolistic business of Life Insurance Corporation of India. It may help to cover the wide range of risk in general insurance and also in life insurance. It helps to introduce new range of products. 2. It would also result in better customer services and help improve the variety and price of insurance products. 3. The entry of new player would speed up the spread of both life and general insurance. It will increase the insurance penetration and measure of density. 4. Entry of private players will ensure the mobilization of funds that can be utilized for the purpose of infrastructure development. 5. Allowing of commercial banks into insurance business will help to mobilization of funds from the rural areas because of the availability of vast branches of the banks. 6. Most important not the least tremendous employment opportunities will be created in the field of insurance which is a burning problem of the presence day today issues. CURRENT SCENARIO : After opening up of insurance in private sector, various leading private companies including joint ventures have entered the fields of insurance both life and non-life business. Tata Ã¢â¬â AIG, Birla Sun life, HDFC standard life Insurance, Reliance General Insurance, Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance, Bajaj Auto Alliance, IFFCO Tokio General Insurance, INA Vysya Life Insurance, SBI Life Insurance, Dabur CJU Life Insurance and Max New York Life. SBI Life insurance has launched three products Sanjeevan, Sukhjeevan and Young Sanjeevan so far and it has already sold 320 policies under its plan. CONCLUSION : From the above discussion we can conclude that the entry of private players in insurance business is needful and justifiable in order to enhance the efficiency of operations, achieving greater density and insurance coverage in the country and for a greater mobilization of long term savings for long gestation infrastructure prefects. New players should not be treated as rivalries to government companies, but they can supplement in achieving the objective of growth of insurance business in india. THE GROWTH OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY Ã¢â¬â POST LIBERALIZATION Prepared by :ashish
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Saturday, September 28, 2019
Bernard is very inquisitive meaning he is curious about lots of things that h append in this society, like all the conditioning that people go through to make them idÃ ©e initial. On page 96 it states in the text, Ã¢â¬Å"Through his discomfort Bernard eagerly listened. Ã¢â¬ Bernard, who is trying to take a trip with Lenin Crowner to a savage reservation in New Mexico. Takes in his permit to the Director of Central London Hatchery and Condition Eng Centre. The director is kind of like the boss over all that happens in the conditioning p art of London.He notices where Bernard is going and started to tell him about the tit me that he went to the same reservation. His story about how he lost one of his many pa raters while hiking a mountain made Bernard uncomfortable but he was also intrigued ABA out the dangers that this place might hold. The Savage's lived very different and they were very Bishop 2 barbaric compared to how Bernard and the society he lived lived. Bernard WA .NET to hear or know what happened with the director at the reservation, he was very ANSI us to find out.Most people in this society aren't curious because they believe everything is perfect. Ir read on page 124, Ã¢â¬ So hard for me to realize,Ã¢â¬ Bernard was saying, Ã¢â¬Å"to re construct. As though we were living on different planets, in different centuries. A mother , and all this dirt, and gods, and old age, and diseaseÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ He shook his head Ã¢â¬ËI It is almost inconceivable. I shall never understand, unless you explain. Ã¢â¬Å". Bernard is talking g to John, the savage. While they are walking at the savage reservation Bernard is confuse seed about how differently John lives than himself.Bernard feels like it is very lodestone d and alienated in a way. He is curious about how or even why people like John live t hat way while they could be part of a much more efficient society. He has a hard time believing that they like living that way and dwells on John to have him explain their way of life. Another time that Bernard had an act of inquisitiveness is on page 117. Ã¢â¬ËBe rand's questions made a diversion. Who? How? When? From where? Ã¢â¬ Bernard and Enola are on the savage reservation. They just witnessed a whipping ceremony and a m an named John asks them if they were from the other land.Bernard wants to know how John knew hey were from the other land. He was curious about it and he was curious ABA out John himself. Another trait Bernard portrays throughout the story is that he is intellectual I or intelligent. On page 138 Bernard says Ã¢â¬Å"l wonder if you'd like to come back to L Indo with us? Ã¢â¬ John and Bernard are walking and talking in the savage reservation. In the Bishop 3 midst of them talking Bernard realizes that if he were to prove that John as the e director's son that the director might change his mind about sending Bernard to Iceland .He was using his intelligence to save him from leaving London. What the two men shar ed was the knowledge that they were individuals. Ã¢â¬ read on page 67. The two men are Bernard Marx and Hellholes Watson. They both fee el like they don't fit in and are different than everyone else. Other people are too dumb t o realize that they don't live in a perfect society and the way they live is very barbaric and in humane. It takes intelligence to prove that you can be greater than the average citizen. On page 47 it says Ã¢â¬Å"thought Bernard Marx, who was a specialist on hypo Eddie. Hypermedia or sleep teaching is a very complex way of operant conditioning Bernard Marx is the one who now's all the specifics about it. Which makes him have a higher intellectual level about how it works and what it is. Distinct is another trait that represents Bernard Marx. He is very different t Han everyone else, which makes him unique. On 149 director says Ã¢â¬Å"by his heretical I views on sport and soma, by the scandalous unorthodoxy sessile, by his refusal to obey the teaching of Ou r Ford and behave out of office hour and just got back from his vacation and was told to see the director.The director, in front of a whole fertilizing or explained how Bernard was unfit to cooperate in the society that they live in, and that it why he has to go to Iceland. The way he behaves and his beliefs are very much h different than every other citizen. Bishop 4 On page 60 it says Ã¢â¬Å"Bonito produced a phial Ã¢â¬Å"one cubic centimeter cures ten gloomy. Ã¢â¬ Bernard had suddenly turned and rushed away. Ã¢â¬ Bernard and Bent o are talking about Lenin, and Bonito notices that Bernard is uncomfortable and offers hi m some soma. Bernard is against Soma because it takes away real feelings.Everyone else in the society likes to take soma because it makes them happy. Bernard is different t Han them because he likes to feel both bad and good emotions where other people just like to feel good. It stated on page 64, Ã¢â¬Å"Barnyard's physique was hardly better than that of the a verage gamma. Ã¢â¬ Bernard is an Alpha, which is the most perfect and sophistic dated out of all the five castes in the society. Almost every Alpha is the same height and ha s similar characteristics. Bernard stands 8 centimeters short of the Average Alpha height HTH and is more slender in proportion.
Posted by Unknown at 10:54 PM
Friday, September 27, 2019
A)The Hurricanes Pauline on the cost of South Pacific is caused for the climate changed or is human responsible( what causes and effects) - Research Paper Example Hurricane Pauline struck the south pacific coast on October 5 1997. The winds were at a speed of 135 miles per hour, enough to shatter everything that came in its path and take more than 200 lives in the process. Hurricane Pauline affected a large area of Mexico and dissipated on October 10 1997. While hurricanes are considered to have a history as old as the existence of this very world, their frequency has increased in the recent past, an important point for the rapidly growing world to give a thought to. Are we humans responsible for their increased frequency or is it just nature showing its wrath upon us. Many of the researchers and scientists have raised questions on the progress of the world and global warming. There have been debates concerning the relation of global warming and increased number of hurricanes than ever. Indeed some of the researchers have been able to prove that global warming has somewhat a role in this increased number of hurricanes and their disastrous effect. It has also been proposed and later proved that climate change has major role in the power dissipation of Atlantic system of hurricanes. These climate changes either natural or not have an important affect in the increased activity of hurricanes in the Atlantic region (Emanuel, 2007). It has also been told that human activities in the Atlantic area have been shown to cause detectable or undetectable changes that might have been leading to increased hurricane activity in that region. Hurricane Pauline that destroyed cities and took hundreds of lives was followed by Hurricane Katrina and many other in the later years specifically in areas where an annual rise in temperature was recorded showing the role of global warming directly and humans indirectly in causing hurricanes. To conclude, we humans have been progressing rather too rapidly, at a pace at which we might leave everything
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Thursday, September 26, 2019
THE NATURE OF SPORT DEVELOPMENT WORK - Essay Example a well co-ordinate programme of various multi sport activities under his territory and provide valued quality coaching in a pleasant and highly professional atmosphere which will ensure that all the participants are supervised and monitored in a suitable manner in the entire training period. To train on various sporting activities to young people in an environment that is safe and friendly to the young trainees. The office will be required to put much emphasis on the LTAD and the fundamental model to the target group this will help him in identifying the prevailing barriers that bars the disadvantaged young people from participating. The officer is responsible in developing and toughening associations with local sports clubs and the suitable partners in encouraging the continuing participation in the sporting activities thereby boosting the chances of sporting opportunities. Ensuring that the coaching provided is of the required quality. This will be much easier if the officer commits himself to a continuous professional development (CPD) programme which will guarantee better quality. Assisting in attainment of positive futures and other sports development programmes in the local authority. This will also enhance easier implementations of various events, festivals and the young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s initiatives. The office bearer has all the duties of ensuring health and safety of trainees, visitors and other employees in line with the health and safety policies of the council which includes completing the risk evaluations at the required venues. The Leisure and Cultural Services Unit Community Sport Coach is responsible for the planning and co-ordination of events, coming up with well scheduled programmes evaluating them and later delivers them to be used by the participants. 2 The office works closely with the community, regional and provincial partners. The manager works closely with provincial, regional and community partners in the supporting and helping with
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Z-ch12 - Case Study Example The main advantage is that it encourages relationship building that greatly facilitates in overcoming workplace conflicts and work cohesively. The major disadvantage is that lot of time is wasted on non core activities that delays the project outcome. It also increases the overall cost of the project which may or may not generate ideas with great market potential. In Clay Street, the most relevant aspect is the need to develop mental models for assigned tasks through activities that highlight the importance of cohesive team processes for optimal productivity. The length of time in Clay Street becomes irrelevant to wider goals and objectives of the team which is to evolve highly creative solution to the given problems. The various activities and processes help to develop a consistent environment of integrated work which relies on creative inputs from team members coming from diverse background. Moreover, it also helps inculcate mutual respect and confidence on the cultural competencies of members that are judiciously exploited by facilitators and team leaders to enhance team processes and its outcome. The constant interaction and critical thinking over the pros and con of the problem and tentative solutions also promote lateral thinking. This is important because often new perspectives and solution evolve not as well defined processes but as i nstances of Ã¢â¬Ëeureka momentsÃ¢â¬â¢ could emerge as breakthrough ideas with immense potential. Hence, time is not as important as the fact that team members constantly brainstorm the problems and look for out of the box solutions. The core idea of Clay Street is to give freedom to team members to evolve new ideas through various processes and states that is evaluated from diverse perspectives. Moreover, they are encumbered with the failure because they are motivated to look at failures as first step to success. This is hugely critical issue that promotes creativity and equips team
Posted by Unknown at 7:43 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
African tone languages - Essay Example African tone languages But such an analysis is bound to lead to some difficult questions such as Ã¢â¬â Is music a form of language? What is the significance of this interrelationship?, etc. These questions will be answered in the following passages. Such aspects as Ã¢â¬Å"in-time performanceÃ¢â¬ , reportorial and generic distinctions will also be scrutinized. The most substantive evidence for the relation between African music and language is to be found in the song lyrics. Let us take the example of Daniel AvorgbedorÃ¢â¬â¢s popular song Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a Great SongÃ¢â¬ . The song belongs to a unique African genre referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"war of insults and musicÃ¢â¬ . Rival groups from different villages engage in a contest of wits and insult each other. Factuality is not as important as their artistic merit. Even if the verses contain falsehoods and unwarranted maledictions, they are overlooked. For a western student of music and culture, such a practice may seem odd or even base. But it is important to understand the role such a musical expression plays in the African cultural context. First of all, much innovation is required in composition to bring about the desired effect. The particular insults relating to irregular teeth, body topography, family ancestry, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personal sex lives, etc, may appear unseemly for someo ne not accustomed to such renditions. To truly appreciate such a style of music, one has to pay attention to the wide variety of literary devices used by the composers (who are also called Anlo-Ewe poets) (Agawu, 2001).
Posted by Unknown at 11:49 AM
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Gender ideology - Essay Example G. Bissinger are no exception to what is stated above. Traditional masculinity is evident in the story of 1988 Permian Ã¢â¬Å"MojoÃ¢â¬ Panthers football season. A superficial role is given to the Pepettes, who are senior high school girls. Hysteria prevails amongst the football fans during the entire season, and each tournament is a do-or-die act for the members of the team. The Odessa community has a social structure that intensely favors the male. The football players are treated like the royal princes. How does the football tournament begin? Bissinger provides a graphic picture of the opening ceremony related to the match. He writes, Ã¢â¬Å" Behind the rows of stools stood the stars of the show, the members of the 1988 Permian Panther high school football team. Dressed in their black game jerseys, they laughed and teased one another like privileged children of royalty. Directly in-front of them, dressed in white jerseys and forming a little protective phalanx, were the Pepettes, a select group of senior girls who made up the school spirit squad. The Pepettes supported all teams, but it was the football team they supported most. The number on the jersey each girl wore corresponded to that of the player she had been assigned for the football season. With that assignment came various time honored responsibilities.Ã¢â¬ (p.45) The mention of time honored responsibilities, indicates the subservient role of the female gender as per the societal norms. The girls had no part in the football game, and not one among them was directly connected to the game, except that they played the role of cheering the players. This is nothing but a subtle form of exploitation and assertion of superiority of masculinity. The exploitation in another form was also prevalent and the players were entitled to some special entitlement, at the cost of Pepette. Bissinger further writes, Ã¢â¬Å" As a part of the tradition, each Pepette brought some type of sweet for her player every week before
Posted by Unknown at 10:41 AM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Partick O'Donnell City Councilman - Essay Example Chapters 13 and 15 of the book are titled, Counties, Special Districts and Regional Agencies and Issues for the New Century, respectively. This is because; the meeting being announced is scheduled for discussions on present matters that have a strong bearing on CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s future and welfare. Particularly, in pages 90-92 in chapter 13 of the book, Field discusses how regional agencies and corporate entities affect the growth and stability of the Ã¢â¬Ëgolden state.Ã¢â¬â¢ In chapter 15 of the book, particularly in pages 102-108, the author divulges on and discusses the challenges that continue to beset Chicago. It is not in doubt that recent events in Chicago at the time would discuss the setbacks that Chicago would be facing at the time. It is also very likely that the prospects that the 7- eleven convenience stores bring towards ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s security, economic development and local employment will be applicable in the meeting (Field, 90-3, 102-8). All these are indica ted in the index page 134. The summary of the article is effective since it amplifies the intent of the article and the meeting that it is intending to communicate. The success of the meeting is premised on the manner in which it communicates the intricacies of the message: the date (May 30th, 2012), the venue (Lawn Bowling Club Recreational Park) and the theme of the meeting (the 7- eleven convenience stores of Anaheim and Ximeno). The May 1st, 2012 article titled Chat with Special Guest: LBPD Specialist Kymberly Cloughesy is also important and successful since it communicates the challenges that Chicago has faced and the solutions that OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell has proposed and continues to ratify. The article OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell Keeps Long Beach Moving is also important since it explains OÃ¢â¬â¢DonnellÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale that having a flowing traffic is not only an efficient and fair way of using ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s budget. Likewise, by expanding 405 Freeway
Posted by Unknown at 9:32 AM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
TwayneÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Movements Essay Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It has often been said that the work of all good authors are shaped by the times through which they live, for with personal experience, the author is given the unique ability to temper even research of past events with their own trials and tribulations.Ã Such is the case when looking at the work of the controversial author Herbert Aptheker, whose unique historical perspective was influenced by his life experiences, political beliefs, and the changing world around him.Ã In this research, one of ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s pivotal works, Ã¢â¬Å"Abolitionism: A revolutionary MovementÃ¢â¬ will be the focus, along with other works of his being considered to add depth to the research, as well as the facts of the life of this controversial author himself. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Thesis Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Overall, ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis, not only in this work but in many others which he wrote in a very prolific career, is that slave labor is a key element which made it possible for the United States to be able to reach the economic, military, and cultural heights that it did in less than a century from its foundation, and also that slaves made it possible for many people to become wealthy at the expense of people who simply had no say in the matter.Ã Therefore, Aptheker maintains, there is a level of reparation which the descendants of slaves are entitled to receive.Ã This thesis, it appears, has a substantial basis in the political beliefs of Herbert Aptheker himself. Further research into Aptheker the individual has indicated that he, by many accounts, was an avowed Marxist and Socialist, and these beliefs tempered his analysis of the practice of slavery, its abolition, and the firm belief that while slaves contributed a great deal to the advancement of American society, those who were slaves of course did not receive their fair share of the fruits of their labors, and that slaves had a great deal more potential to realize than what they did in their slave roles, and of course in many cases fulfilled their greatest potential only after being freed from the bondage of slavery itself. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis makes more sense, in fact, when it is compared to the ideas of Marxism, which likewise proclaims that those who are enslaved by the wealthy in society must in fact rise up and claim their own rightful piece of the fruits of labor, lest they be crushed under the feet of those who would use them for their muscle and effort, without providing them with just compensation for the amount of work they have put in to whatever they are doing.Ã Ã Ã Ã Book Summary Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"AbolitionismÃ¢â¬ is as unique a book as was the author that wrote it.Ã Overall, what the book succeeds in doing is to overturn all of the conventional myths about the practice of slavery in the early southern United States from several different perspectives.Ã To begin, Aptheker challenges the myth that all of the people who lived in the southern United States in the years prior to the American Civil War were all strongly in favor of slavery. Rather, Aptheker maintains in the book, those show supported slavery in the south were essentially those who were able to benefit financially from the practice of slavery itself, such as the plantation owners who used huge numbers of slave laborers in order to allow for the harvesting of crops in efficient and inexpensive ways, thereby maximizing profits (Aptheker). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Moving forward in ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, he then challenges the assertion that those who fought for the Confederate States of America during the Civil War were all pro-slavery.Ã Rather, Aptheker maintains, many of these individuals were either interested in maintaining freedom from what they saw as an increasingly oppressive federal government, or simply to protect their homes and families from the invading armies of the north. Therefore, these were not slavery supporters but were simply doing what most people would do in a similar situation-protect their land and loved ones.Ã Additionally, the author also makes it clear that freed slaves could, and did, contribute a great deal to the political climate of the United States, and were in fact highly regarded by whites, thereby totally debunking the myth that once a slave, always seen as a slave by others (Aptheker). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ultimately, having defeated many of the myths of American slavery, Aptheker moves forward with his discussion of Ã¢â¬Å"AbolitionismÃ¢â¬ by discussing how the slave labor of the early United States in fact helped to build up the early United States, and since this progress would not have been possible without slaves, these same slaves, or more correctly the descendants of these slaves, are in fact entitled to financial reparations in a way of compensating them for the hardships inflicted upon them at the hands of slave owners (Aptheker). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Overall, what one sees in reviewing ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s book is a challenging of the misconceptions about slavery, the fight against slavery, and the aftermath.Ã As was mentioned in earlier portions of this research, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s theories seem to have been shaped as much by his life experience and political leanings as anything. How the Author Wrote the Book Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was stated earlier in the research that Aptheker seems to have relied heavily on his life experiences and political opinions in the writing of Ã¢â¬Å"AbolitionismÃ¢â¬ , and this is a more reliable fact when the book is looked at in a much closer manner.Ã Beyond this, Aptheker also utilized historical material in the form of primary materials to form the foundation of his book.Ã There is also something much more important that Aptheker used in the writing of this particular book which makes it all the more unique and compelling. This book was written in the final years of ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s life- a life which led him to study the human condition, write and lecture on it extensively, and fearlessly state his opinions on the topic, many times to his own disadvantage.Ã What this has done, however, is allowed an insight that very few authors could ever achieve, and this comes through in this, and many other works of ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s. An Opinion of the Book Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In one humble opinion, based on research, ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s book is a well researched, eye-opening work, as long as the reader keeps in mind that the author has a very specific political slant in writing it.Ã However, it must also be noted that the researcher was impressed by the fact that this book was able to challenge myths that are based on only a few opinions, and that Aptheker took the chance of using established research, modern political theory, and logical conclusions to put together not only an historic work of research, but also insightful social commentary. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In this research, a controversial man and his insightful book about a controversial topic have been discussed and analyzed.Ã More importantly, however, it seems that in the final analysis, Herbert Aptheker and his vast body of work have forced all of us to take a closer look at ourselves. Putting aside what some would consider to be ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s questionable political beliefs, what we see when looking at the man and his work with a healthy dose of tolerance and respect for his point of view is a man who understood all too well the depths to which the human mind can plummet in pursuit of its own goals, how innocent people can be hurt in the process, and also how the struggle against the establishment has taken place in the past and must continue in the future.Ã In conclusion, perhaps this is ApthekerÃ¢â¬â¢s most lasting legacy.
Posted by Unknown at 8:22 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Green Technology Issues In The Construction The environment issues is one of biggest problem that every countries facing nowadays. This problem is getting worse from day to day due to the irresponsible human activities which cause lots of damages to the environment. There are various ways taken by every country in order to reduce the issues of the environment. One of the ways is promoting green technology. As in Malaysia, we are also facing the same issues. So the government has been putting many efforts in promoting green technology to create a better environment. The implementation of green technology serves the purpose of promoting health and improve environment. The important of implementing green technology is becoming recognised worldwide. Mostly the European countries provide some benefits like incentives or requirements to promote green technology. For example, Reykjavik, Iceland, is the greenest city in the world. The city is run completely on hydroelectric and geothermal power. This country plans to become the cleane st country in the future. In Malaysia, green technology less being applies in the construction industry due to lack of knowledge, and the industry is not willing to accept the challenge and change. This research is about to study the green technology issues in construction industry in Malaysia. Background The concept of implementation of green technology in construction industry is starting in the 1930s when the new building technologies began to transform the urban landscape. A small group of forward-thinking architects, environmentalists, and ecologists, starting to thinking about the advisability of building to construct it in more friendly environmental way after they have been inspired by the work of Victor Olgyay (Design with Climate), Ralph Knowles (Form and Stability), and Rachel Carson (Silent Spring. (Building Design and Construction, 2003, page4). In this generation, construction industry is normally one of the largest industries inside a country and its widely influence over other related industry. Due to its wide influences towards other related industry, the government always use the construction industry as a regulator of the national economy. Therefore, the energy and resources consumed by the industry surprisingly high if compared to others industries. Because of its highly consumption of energy and resources, the construction industry is known as the most environment unfriendly industry. Various environmental pollution has arises due to the development of this field. Aim The title is to study the green technology issues in construction industry in Malaysia. Objective -to review and examine the concepts and principle of green technology -to study the features of green technology in KL area -to identify the various barrier of influences of green technology in Malaysia Research Methodology Stage 1: Literature review This stage involves a lot of research to search the information about my research topic. In this stage, the review may include some definition of green technology. All the information will be collected from books, journals, articles, online resources, etc. The information that gathers will be summarized under the literature review section. From this method, I get to know more about the concept and definition of green technology. Stage 2: Case study I will conduct a field research to look for the case study that fully achieves my objectives. The case study is carried out by looking at the types of green technology that has been use in our country. I find for the case study information through newspaper and magazines and visit the relevant building which has implement green technology inside and I will try to interview the maintenance personnel, contractor or architect if possible. The interview is to identify the adoption of green technology and the advantages of green technology and how it benefits the users and environment. The case study will support my study by analysis the information that I have collected. Stage 3: Questionnaire This stage would involve in order collecting the data which is relevant to the research objectives. The questionnaires will be set with questions with the response opportunity of why, other, please state so that the answers can be analyzed easily and quickly. The targeted study population for this survey questionnaire is local construction companies which are involved before in construct green building. This is because they have more experience on the green concept and they know more about the technology of green. This will make the answers to be more accuracy. I have target 30 companies from Malaysia to answer the questionnaire. The list of companies in Malaysia can be obtained from relevant professional boards such as Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), Malaysia Builder Directory and Builders Diary. The questionnaire survey is distributed via mail. Phone calls can be made to ask permission from companies to answer the questionnaire set. If less than half of the construction companies response, self visit to the construction companies are required in order to make sure relevant data can be collected smoothly. Stage 4: Analysis data and result This stage would be to compile and analyzing all the information and data obtained that I have collected. I will analyses the data collected and maybe include some recommendations. Scope of Study It is significant to determine the scope of study and limitation of the research. The overall research will based on the objectives and the final output is to achieve all objectives of the research. This research is to study the green technology issues in the construction industry in Malaysia. Definition of Green Technology The word green can be refers as to preserve the environment including the plants and animals which exist in it, and the word technology refers as the application of knowledge to create tools for certain purposes. Green technology can be known as the technology which is harmless to the environment or clean technology. In Malaysia, according to KETTHA (Ministry of energy, Green Technology and Water, 2010), Green Technology means the application and development of products, systems and equipment used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimize and reduces the negative impact of human activities. According to KETTHA (Ministry of energy, Green Technology and Water, 2010), Green Technology also refers to products, equipment or systems which satisfy the following criteria: It will minimizes the degradation of environment, it has zero or low green house gas (GHG) emission It is safe for use and promotes healthy and improved environment for all forms of life It conserves the use of energy and natural resources, and finally It promotes the use of renewable resources. Goals of Green Technology Green technology act as an important role nowadays and it has the ability to reduce the damages which create by the society in the past. Green technology is expecting to bring improvement and changes to the daily habitual habits of society. Severe goals that contribute the developments in this rapidly growing field include: Sustainability The application of green technology is sustainable development and act as a solution to handle the environment issues. Sustainable development is an example that uses the resources to meet the needs of society in ways that can continue indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Green Technology, 2006) Innovation Innovation means create of new things, ways or ideas to do something. New or improvement methods which is use to develop new method to replace the current technologies, for example the fossil fuel or chemical intensive agriculture, which have been contribute damage to the environment. The alternatives technologies that create to replace the current one must be environmental friendly. Cradle to Cradle A change in industry, which switch from cradle to grave cycle to a cradle to cradle cycle. By creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re-used, the impact to the environment will be reduced. The cradle to cradle idea is that the waste equal foods. This means that all the products will able to return to the earths lifecycle. Viability To form a centre economics activity which connected with green technologies and product which are friendly to environment. For the green technologies to have contact with the environment, it must speed up the implementation and create new careers which truly protect the planet. Source reduction Source reduction is an effort by reducing or eliminating the waste amount by several ways like implementing the conservation techniques, promoting the usage of non-toxic materials, or re-using the materials rather than treat as waste materials. The concept of reduce, recycle and re-use is one of the way to getting waste reduction, by reducing the disposal materials quantities, trying to recycle the materials and re-use it to reduce the pollution risk. Major Fields of Green Technologies in Malaysia There are many different types of green technologies that are being used in our country at different sector. These green technologies are expected to bring improvement of the environment and human health. In Malaysia, there are four major fields of green technology where green technologies is being implemented, which are building, energy, transportation, and water and waste management. Building Sector As the population of human race keep increasing, the space for development keep expands, and causes the pollution level of environment increasing consequently. In order to mitigate the impact of development towards the environment, Green Building has appeared as a new building philosophy, which promote the use of more environmental friendly materials, more clean techniques to develop, and reduce waste consumption. According to U.S Green Building Council (USGBC), Green Building is defined as a building that is designed, constructed, and operated to boost environmental, economic, health and productivity performance. (USGBC, 2010, page 6) Regards to GBI, green building is a building designed and operated to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings and reducing building impact on human health and environment during buildings lifecycle through better sitting, design, construction, operation and removal. In addition, green building also focuses on increasing the efficiency of resources use like energy, water and materials and energy conservation. The technologies which applied in green building may be different from region to region; there are basic principles that insist on which the method is derived. Design efficiency The concept and design stage is one of the important factors when constructing a building, as it has the impact in the building performance and cost. The building design will affect the building performance if the design is not well design. For example, the heat from sun rises and sets will influence the occupants comfort inside the building. Energy efficiency Green building concept is always connected with the energy efficient use. The purpose is to reduce energy wasted and rely on natural resources like solar, wind, etc which these energies are free and will not create pollution. For example, the position of window, if is place at the right position, it can fully provide more natural daylight and ventilation, thus reduce the chances of usage of electric lightning and ventilation system. Water efficiency Reduction in use of water, protecting water quality and minimization the wastage of water are one of the key factors in green building. The conservation and protection of water throughout the life of a building can be achieved by using water that is collected, used, purified, and re-used on site. For example, the conservation of water in a building can be achieved by designing dual plumbing system which recycles the water in toilet. Materials efficiency The material criterion is concern on the selection of construction material, the reuse and recycles material and also management of the construction waste material. To achieve the role on material, promote of usage of friendly materials from sustainable sources and recycling. Implement proper construction waste management with storage, collection and re-use of recyclables and construction formwork and waste. Indoor environment quality Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) means the quality of environment inside the building. The Indoor Environment Quality includes the indoor air quality, thermal quality, heating, ventilation, air conditioning and the lightning elements. To achieve good indoor environmental quality, it will involve the use of low volatile organic compound materials, application of quality air filtration, sound absorbing materials, control of air movement and humidity and artificial light perform. Operation and maintenance The green building need to operate responsibly and maintained properly in order to preserve the sustainability of a building with its design and construction. The aspect of green feature in a building is integrated with the operation and maintenance phase of a buildings life. Ensuring operations and maintenance are part of the projects planning and development process which will help retain the green criteria designed of the project. Waste reduction The construct of green building will reduce the construction waste. The construction of a building will create a huge solid waste and these wastages are normally thrown away which will causes pollution to the environment. Green building will fully use the materials and minimizes the construction waste. Energy sector Transportation Waste and water management
Posted by Unknown at 7:09 AM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Causes of the Increase in FDI Flows Across Countries Growth literature The significant increase in FDI flows across countries is a clear indication of globalization of the world economies over the past 2 decades. Neoclassical model of growth as well as endogenous growth models provides the basis for most of the empirical work on the FDI-GROWH relationship. According to the neoclassical growth theory, economic growth generally comes from two sources: factors accumulation and total factor productivity growth (Felipe, 1997). Growth is easier to quantity and analyse while difficulties abound in the measurement of the Total Factor Production growth due to the lack of appropriate economic modeling techniques as well as lack of appropriate data. Neoclassical growth projected that based on aggregate production function that relates the total output of an economy to the aggregate amount of the labour, human capital, physical capital and level of technology, poor countries will grow faster than rich countries. Neoclassical growth theory implies that return on cap ital stock should be higher in poor countries than in rich countries. This implies that the impact of FDI is limited to its output growth effect in the short run, with no change in the long run growth rate. On the other hand, the Endogenous growth literature state that FDI can not only contribute to the economic growth through capital formation and technology transfers (Blomstrom et al.1996) but also do so through the augmentation of the level of knowledge through labour training and skill acquisition ( De Mello, 1999). Endogenous growth models emphasize on other channels including human capital accumulation and externalities or spillover effect through which FDI can promote growth in the long run. (Romer 1986, Loungani and Razin,2001). The three channels identify through which FDI affects growth; First, FDI increases capital accumulation in the host country by introducing new inputs and technologies (Dunning, 1993; Blomstrom et al. 1996). Second, FDI may stimulate knowledge transfers, both in terms of labour training and skill acquisition and by introducing alternative management practices and better organizational arrangements (De Mello, 1997).Third, FDI increases competition in the h ost country by overcoming entry barriers and reducing the market power of existing firms. Channels of Growth When a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign investment increase international production also increase rapidly, and thus investment only contribute towards the expansion of national markets but also larger scale regional and global markets( UNCTAD,1990). It is obvious that FDI will convey many benefits to the host country; one of them is economic growth. Hermes and Lensink(2000) has summarized different channels through which positive externalities related with FDI can arise namely: i)competition channel where increased competition is likely to result in increased productivity, investment in human and physical capital and efficiency. Increased competition may lead to changes in the industrial structure towards more competitiveness and more export oriented activities. ii) Training channel through increased training of labour and administration. FDI can also increase the quality of domestic human capital and improve the knowhow and managerial skills of local firms. (learning by watching effect) ii i) Linkages channel whereby foreign investment is often accompanied by technology transfer. FDI can encourage the adoption of new technology in the production process through capital spillovers. According to De Mello (1997) and OECD (2002), FDI affect growth is likely to depend on the economic and technological conditions in the host country. Therefore, technological spillover is possible only when there is certain minimum or threshold level of human capital available in the host country (Borensztein, et al. 1998) iv) domestic firms imitate the move advance technologies used by foreign firms commonly termed as the Ã¢â¬Ëdemonstration channelÃ¢â¬â¢. By adapting new technologies and ideas (i.e. technological diffusion) they may catch up to the levels of technology in developed countries. The use of new technologies may be important in contributing to higher productivity of capital and labour in the host country. Local firms have an opportunity to improve their efficiency by learnin g and interacting with foreign firms. Benefits of FDI The economic rationale for offering special incentive to attract FDI frequently derives from the belief that foreign investment produces externalities in the form of technology transfers and spillovers. Spillover effects may take place when the entry or presence of foreign firms leads to productivity and efficiency benefits in the host countryÃ¢â¬â¢s local firms (BlomstrÃ ¶m and Kokko 1998). There are two forms of spillover effects that foreign firms bring to the local industries which are Inter- and intra- industry spillover effects. Horizontal spillover also called intra-industry spillovers correspond to technological externalities associated with specific knowledge, such as management strategy and know-how and superior production techniques. Kokko (1996) argue that domestic firms benefits from the entry of foreign firms competition, imitation and workersÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity. Local firms will allocate more resources to product development and quality assurance in order to remain competitive. Gorg and Greenaway (2004) state that there are 4 channels through which horizontal spillover might occur Imitation which involves simulation of exclusive technology, management and marketing skills of foreign firms such that it will improve the productivity of local firms( Halpenn and Murakozy,2007) Human capital and labour turnover; Gory and Greenaway (2004) identify two mechanisms through which there is productivity spillover. First a direct spillover to complementary worker, as skilled labour working alongside labour tends to raise productivity of the latter. Second, workers that move carry knowledge with them new technology, new management techniques and consequently can become direct agents of technology transfer. Competition- as competition increase due to foreign firms, domestic firms have to introduce new technology in order to increase their efficiency(Glass and Saggi,2002) Export- local firms can learn penetration tactics which are viewed as essential for the export market. Hence they may experience cost reduction with exportation Recent studies based on micro-level panel data call into question the evidence of positive spillover and find either insignificant or negative intra industry spillovers. Haddad and Harrison (1993) find no significant relationship between the level of FDI and domestic firmÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity growth in the same sector for Morocco in late 80s. Aitken and Harrison (1999) find a negative relationship between the two variables for Venezuela manufacturing industries for the period 1970 to 1980. Vertical spillover also known as inter-industry spillovers consists of externalities occurring due to FDI through backward and forward linkages to input market. Usually when MNE make transaction with local suppliers and customers it may lead to the transfer of technology and know-how which subsequently will improve the intermediate product. MNE can increase the demand for the local input as a backward link to intermediate good suppliers hence increasing the productivity of domestic firms. Productivity can also be increase through forward linkages when domestic producers purchase more sophisticated intermediate goods from MNEs. Moran (2001) states that there are case studies which show that knowledge is transferred from downstream foreign affiliates to upstream, training and assistance as well as supervision in implementation of new technologies
Posted by Unknown at 6:32 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Genealogy of Alfalfa In this paper on the genealogy of alfalfa I will begin by telling you about the background and history of alfalfa in the United States. Secondly, I will tell you about the different sources of alfalfa germplasm. Next, I will talk about different studies and experiments that have been done to diversify the breeds of alfalfa. Finally, I will tell you about the genetic makeup of alfalfa and what distinguishes it from other popular plants. Alfalfa otherwise known today as the Ã¢â¬Å"Queen of ForageÃ¢â¬ is thought to have originated in Iran over 2,400 years ago. It was the only forage crop that was cultivated before recorded history therefore the history of its origin isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one-hundred percent accurate. The first attempt to grow alfalfa in the United States was recorded in Georgia in the year 1736. The introduction of alfalfa to California came first by Spanish settlers and later by Europeans. The Europeans were headed to California during the gold rush. They obtained alfalfa seed when sailing around South America. Alfalfa flourished in the western states because of its favorable climate. Because alfalfa has a good yield, is palatable, and has a high value of nutrition. Word spread and so did the planting. Alfalfa then spread eastward to the Midwestern states. The distribution of alfalfa to states east of the Mississippi river was a failure due to its acid soils, plant disease, and humidity. Most of the genetic diversities of alfalfa come from nine germplasm sources. These nine germplasm sources are M. falcate, M. varia, Turkistan, Flemish, Chilean, Peruvian, Indian, and African. According to Barnes, Bingham, Murphy, Hunt, Beard, Skrdla, and Teubar Ã¢â¬Å"M. falcata has orange-yellow flowers and an early fall dormancy therefore it is known to have a heavy first cutting and a light second cutting. It also has some bacterial wilt and foliar disease resistances. Strains were usually classified as M. varia because they had variegated flower colors and variable pod shapes. M. varia sources were introduced to South Dakota in 1907 as seed from a single hybrid plant found in Russia. These sources are winter hardy, more vigorous than M. falcata and are susceptible to bacterial wilt. Turkistan alfalfas have been described as poor seed producers, susceptible to leaf diseases, and resistant to many insects and crown and root disease. They vary in winter hardiness from moderately hardy to hardy.
Posted by Unknown at 7:53 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Since middle school, I have believed that all of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s works, similar to A Mid Summer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, were plays that one would read to hear a happy, entertaining story; but, it was not until this year, after reading The Merchant of Venice, that I recognized the darker, more sinister, side of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays. The Merchant of Venice supports the Jewish, anti-Semitic stereotype as the wicked character of Shylock is developed. Many individuals fear that it is improper to teach and discuss The Merchant of Venice in high school classrooms because of the negative way it presents Jews; however, I believe that it is important to read this controversial play in high schools because it enables students to learn anti-Semitic history and because reading ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s works, due to their complexity, expands the literary mind of those who read it. It is so important for people to recognize how Jews were portrayed during ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s life so that historic events such as the holocaust do not repeat themselves. Teachers who plan on presenting their students with The Merchant of Venice should also present them with articles explaining how Jews received their negative stereotype and explain to them that Jews are not as evil as Shylock. The play can still be useful as a high school reading experience only if taught correctly, in a manner that avoids Jews being insulted and non-Jews getting a completely flawed idea about Jews. Although comedic during the 16th century, The Merchant of Venice can no longer be viewed as a comedy in the 21st century due to the diversity of people and general acceptance of their cultures throughout the United States. Without proper instruction from teachers, non-Jewish students may begin to express h... ...ent in their society. In reading Shakespeare, minds of readers are expanded due to his use of Early Modern English and extensive vocabulary. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s works also provide readers with great entertainment whose portrayal of the human condition transcends the generations. The Merchant of Venice contains many witty lines and sub-plots. Ã¢â¬Å"Prejudice feeds on ignoranceÃ¢â¬ (Leggatt 215). If teachers do not teach their students the origin of such stereotypes, then they are developing ignorant students who will forever believe that Jews are incarnations of the devil. Considering the Jewish Stereotype that is supported and developed in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Merchant of Venice, the play is, indeed, still useful as a high school reading experience because, due to its sensitive topics, assists in eliminating innocence and creates a more discerning eye for world issues in students.
Posted by Unknown at 9:14 AM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Sweeping cultural change rarely comes rapidly. Even in places where the constitution of the nation would guarantee equality of citizens, achieving true equality can be an agonizingly slow process. In the United States, for example, a fledgling womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage movement was present as early as the middle 1700s. The right to vote, however, would not be realized until 1920, over a hundred and fifty years later. Korea is a divided nation even more steeped in cultural tradition. Although there are some subtle differences, depending on region and class, Koreans still live in a regimented, patriarchal society. Globalization can result in a more equal society. The world is more economically interrelated than ever. The power of tradition is strong, however. Economic change has moved much more rapidly than social change within Korea. Generally speaking, cultural change within large, modern cities is occurring at a modest pace. In most rural areas, there has been little, if any, change in recent centuries. Surprisingly, emigration to the United States has not rapidly increased social change among the Korean community, evidencing the strength of cultural ties. Social change in Korea will continue to make uneven progress in the future because access to education varies widely among regions and classes. In the late 20th century there has been a dramatic shift in the center of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights activity. Areas of the country that have greater interrelation have made greater strides toward the full liberation of women. Early in the 20th century, northern Korean cities saw the first cautious steps toward the empowerment of women. The communist regime has stalled cultural progress, not only for women but for everyone. Today, the center of cultural change is located in the South. Regardless of the location, the nature of the Korean character indicates that cultural change, especially for women, will always move slower than economic change. The Patriarchal Society The centuries Ã¢â¬âold influence of Confucianism in Korea has resulted in a class-conscious, patriarchal society. The influence of Japanese invaders in the mid-20th century only served to reinforce that reality. The Confucianism practiced in Korea mandated strict roles for men and women. Women were relegated to house work and discouraged from seeking any marketable education. Besides the influence of tradition, critics of increased liberty and opportunity have used a similar tactic to those who resisted this process in other countries. They claim that liberation from traditional roles for women will destroy the family structure. Similar arguments were made in relation to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage in the United States. It is an argument that carries weight, particularly in a nation with such a deep paternalistic. background as Korea. Even in modern South Korea, the influence is still apparent. Ã¢â¬ Women still believe that they should be good housewives and mothers. There is some change but it is very, very slowÃ¢â¬ (Palley, 1990). Geographical and Class Differences The most obvious regional differences in culture come between the economically advanced state of South Korea and the economically stagnant, communist North Korea. The advanced industrial cities in the south, such as Seoul, have seen a liberalization of society, even if it lags behind the pace of economic change. The industrialization and modernization of South Korea has also resulted in the rise of a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement, particularly in the larger cities. Early in the 20th century, the education of women was much more prevalent in the northern area of Korea, particularly Pyongyang. There were two factors present there which correlated closely with the education of women. The elite classes were concentrated in northern areas at that time, and; there was also a strong presence of western missionaries there. Education for women was typically restricted to the upper classes. Consequently, professions in which women could participate were severely limited. In the 1930s, only three out of 100,000 college-age Korean women took part in higher education Being born into a higher class, however, did not necessarily increase freedom. While women from the elite class have always been more likely to receive education, that education did not necessarily flow into a career. In fact, as Jihang Park reports, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the higher the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s status, the more severe her seclusionÃ¢â¬ (1990). Jihang Park writes that, Ã¢â¬Å"In Korea, education was the primary focus of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement and remained so until 1945 (1990). A college for women has been in operation since the early 20th century, but the subjects available for study were limited in the early decades to preparing women for homemaking. The first generation of college educated women in Korea were not effective advocates for increased cultural change. Because they were primarily from the elite classes, they were not especially career-driven. For many, education was mainly a means for attracting a better husband. Even where some progress toward equality is being made, the process is slow and incomplete. Ã¢â¬Å"Opportunities for professional mobility are very limited, and on average in 1988 women earned approximately 45% that of menÃ¢â¬ (Palley, 1990). A number of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights organizations have emerged in the south, but their effect on issues such as these have been minimal. Korean Immigrants A superficial cultural analysis of United States immigrants might conclude that exposure to economic and social liberty would substantially change the culture of immigrants and their descendants. Korean immigrants are somewhat unique, however, Whereas other immigrant groups are highly diverse in language and cultural practices, Korean immigrants tend to form a more homogenous group. Within that group, exposure to the outside culture remains somewhat limited and the cultural traditions brought from Korea remain strong. Many Koreans work in businesses tailored mainly to serve their own community. Many Korean immigrants, male and female, Ã¢â¬Å"have little opportunity to learn American customs, including a more egalitarian gender role orientationÃ¢â¬ (Pyong Gap Min, 2001). Economic realities have dictated some changes. An increasing number of Korean women are finding it necessary to work outside the home. Many wives work along side their husbands. The participation of married Korean women in the American labor force has increased from about 17% in 1980 to 25% in 1990 (Min, 2001). As it did with American women in the mid 20th century, working outside the home is empowering women to take a more active role in determining their own lives. Korean men grudgingly accept that women are entering the workforce, but still feel driven to maintain traditions at home. The result is a many marriages of Korean-Americans are experiencing strain. At the same time, cultural tradition stresses the importance of marriage. During the first half of the 20th century, more than 99% of Korean women were married by the age of forty-five (Jihang Park, 1990). Analysis and Conclusion There are some forces within Korea which are advocating social changes on behalf of women. Eventually, a more equal Korea will emerge. The question is whether it will take tens of years or hundreds of years. Those forces within Korea must battle against hundreds of years of deeply ingrained cultural tradition. Societal change at a significant level is often initiated by the middle class. The gradually growing workforce of Korean women will need to develop effective leaders in future years to move the process toward equality forward (Palley, 1990). In the past, the most influential forces for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights have been external. Missionaries, in particular have been relatively effective in advocating education and basic human rights for women. It will take a larger force, though, to foster fundamental and lasting change for the lives of women in Korea. Fundamental social change is often economically-driven. Globalization is a seemingly irresistible economic force in the 21st century. Its focus on technology, education and interrelation with the world will force countries to either recognize the economic potential of women or risk being left behind. The pace of cultural change varies, and will continue to vary, depending on a number of factors. Some types of change are more easily accepted than others. For example, Korean-American men have accepted the necessity of their wives working but many do not accept that this can mean an alteration of marriage roles. Korean women in North Korea, South Korea and America are working in greater numbers than ever before. In a few cases, this has given them greater access to education and the political system. In most cases, however, it has not. Sources Min, Pyong Gap. (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Changes in Korean ImmigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ Gender Role and Social Status, and Their Marital Conflicts. Ã¢â¬ Sociological Forum. Vol. 16, No. 2 (Jun. ), pp. 301-320. Min, Pyong Gap. (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"Korean Ã¢â¬Å"Comfort WomenÃ¢â¬ : The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender and Class. Ã¢â¬ Gender and Society. Vol. 17, No. 6 (Dec. ), pp. 938-957. Palley, Marian Lief. (1990). Ã¢â¬Å"WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Status in South Korea: Tradition and Change. Ã¢â¬ Asian Survey. Vol. 30, No. 12 (Dec. ), pp. 1136-1153. Park, Jihang. (1990). Ã¢â¬Å"Trailblazers in a Traditional World: KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s First Women College Graduates, 1910-45. Ã¢â¬ Social Science History. Vol. 14, No. 4 (Winter), pp. 533-558.
Posted by Unknown at 10:55 AM
Monday, September 16, 2019
With all the force and vigor at my command, I contend that we have relaxed our vigilance, that we have allowed ourselves to deteriorate. I contend that we have lost our pride in the Philippines, that we no longer consider it a privilege and an honor to be born a Filipino. To the Filipino youth, nothing Filipino is good enough any more. Even their Filipino names no longer suit them. A boy named Juan does not care to be called Juanito anymore. No, he must be Johnny. A girl named Virginia would get sore if she was nicknamed Viring or Binang. No, she must be Virgie or Ginny. Roberto has become Bobbie; Maria, Mary or Marie. And because they have become so Americanized, because they look down on everything Filipino, they now regard with contempt all the things that our fathers and our fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ fathers held dear. They frown on kissing the hands of their elders, saying that it is unsanitary. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t care for the Angelus, saying that it is old-fashioned. They belittle the kundiman, because it is so drippingly sentinmental. They are what they are today because their elders Ã¢â¬â their parents and their teachers Ã¢â¬â have allowed them to be such. They are incongruities because they cannot be anything else! And they cannot be anything else because their elders did not know enough, or did not care enough to fashion them and to mold them into the Filipino pattern. This easing of the barriers that would have protected our Filipinism, this has resulted in something more serious, I refer to the de-Filipinization of our economic life. Let us face it. Economically speaking, we Filipinos have become strangers in our own country. And so, today, we are witnesses to the spectacle of a Philippines inhabited by Filipinos who do not act and talk like Filipinos. We are witnesses to the pathetic sight of a Philippines controlled and dominated and run by non-Filipinos. We have become untrue to ourselves, we have become traitors to the brave Filipinos who fought and died so that liberty might live in the Philippines. We have betrayed the trust that Rizal reposed on us, we are not true to the faith that energized Bonifacio, the faith that made Gregorio del Pilar cheerfully lay down his life at Tirad Pass.
Posted by Unknown at 1:14 PM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Whenever we open our mouths, judgements are made on our social class, intelligence and even personalities. These judgements are based on various speech elements, such as our accent, dialect, vocabulary and use of slang. It is the latter that this study is based on. The particular type of slang I intend to focus on has recently emerged alongside a new speech pattern known as Multi Ethnic Youth Dialect. (MEYD) My aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between slang use and negative judgements made on the user. Secondly, as slang is frequently compared to Halliday's Anti-Language hypothesis, I intend to see if it can rationally be seen as such. I also wish to investigate whether specific lexical items a slang user deploys will affect the judgements. Much of the slang used takes origins from gang and drug culture and as a result my hypothesis is that if speakers use slang that holds its origins in these backgrounds, people are likely to extend the negative attributes that are assigned to gang members and drug users and thus label the speakers as violent drug users. I also hypothesise that users of slang will be judged more negatively than non-users of slang. Methodology In my study I will research the slang itself and the opinions people have on slang speakers. I will use recordings of slang speakers which I will analyse, and I shall conduct a survey to collect data on people's opinions. I have gathered four different recordings of youths speaking slang to varying degrees. I am aware that controlling extraneous variables will be difficult but I have attempted to do so by ensuring all speakers use non-standard English (evidenced by their universal use of glottal stops) and that all use either MEYD or Estuary English (EE). Though it would be preferable to have all speakers using MEYD I found that as slang is so deeply entwined with usage of this dialect I was not able to find speakers who used lesser amounts of slang in this dialect. I intend to give four questionnaires (one for each recording) to each participant. The questionnaire will list attributes and after the participant has heard each recording they will be asked to rate the speaker out of four for each attribute (for example, one attribute may be how aggressive the participant is, one would be not at all aggressive, whilst four would be very aggressive) Once I have collected my data, I shall analyse the speakers' language usage and the questionnaire results. I will look for a correlation between language and attributes assigned to speakers, in particular how negatively they are viewed in relation to their slang use. I am aware I cannot practically use as large a sample size as would be desirable, however, I shall take this into account when assessing my results. Analysis Multi Ethnic Youth Dialect (MEYD) In recent years, a dialect known as Multi Ethnic Youth Dialect has emerged. A wealth of research has already been conducted on this accent by such linguists as Sue Fox and David Britain. Though research has mostly been conducted into Multi-cultural London English (MLE) this is just one example of MEYD that is spread across different areas in the country. MEYD derives from multicultural diversity in inner city areas. Increased immigration in cities has lead to various forms of English merging. For the most part the predominant form of English is that spoken in Britain, but it is not uncommon to hear vocabulary that has derived from alternate forms such as the Jamaican Creole. The slang of MEYD derives from a variety of different dialects and creoles. Though I intend to focus on slang, there are several other notable features: An extremely rhythmic speech pattern deriving from West Indes' speech is typical. This rhythmic style of speaking is noticeable in speakers' use of plosives: For example the unvoiced dental fricative in Ã¢â¬Å"thingÃ¢â¬ being substituted with the voiceless dental plosive so that it is pronounced Ã¢â¬Å"tingÃ¢â¬ . Use of the glottal stop is also common, resulting from the influence of Estuary English of which the glottal stop is a defining element. These features are all used by speaker one when he says:- Ã¢â¬Å"you have a li*le (.) play area ting inni* where you can just go cotchÃ¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"cotchÃ¢â¬ derives from the Jamaican Creole, the use of glottal stops are denoted by asterisks and Ã¢â¬Å"ThingÃ¢â¬ has been pronounced with the voiceless dental plosive reflecting the rhythmic features of MEYD. MEYD as Anti-Language In many ways, the use of MEYD by youths fits into the idea of anti-language developed by Halliday. In an anti-language words are used in an attempt to exclude people who are not members of the anti-language's discourse community. The dialect of some of my speakers fits well into the idea of anti-language. As Halliday's fourth requirement of an anti-language states the grammar of MEYD is virtually identical to the norm. Though there are some exceptions to the rule such as the second speaker's use of Ã¢â¬Å"you revvedÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"you're revvedÃ¢â¬ which derives from the Jamaican Creoles distinct pronoun use. However, the general rules of English grammar are for the most part entirely kept. Halliday's third rule dictates the main linguistic deviation in an anti-language is the lexis. This rule is followed by MEYD speakers and a great variety of lexis which does not adhere to common usage is displayed; for example the first speaker uses the term Ã¢â¬Å"cakeÃ¢â¬ in place of Ã¢â¬Å"being looked for by policeÃ¢â¬ though the word Ã¢â¬Å"cakeÃ¢â¬ could be found in the dictionary, its definition would be entirely different from what the speaker uses it to mean. Halliday's suggestion is that an anti-language is born out of the speakers desire to distance themselves from accepted society. Though this would be difficult to prove of the speakers, it would be likely considering ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"youth rebellionÃ¢â¬ alongside the fact that most speakers of this form of slang are of the younger generation. Were MEYD to be considered an anti-language this would be hugely relevant to my study. As anti-language demonstrates a desire to be distanced from the norm, it is frequently linked with criminality and rebellious behaviour; this is not helped by the air of secrecy that surrounds anti-language making it difficult for non-users to understand. Lexis (Speaker 1/Very strong slang) The first speaker uses more slang words than any of the other speakers, for this reason, he can be seen as an example of very strong slang. However, to gain a full understanding of the slang he uses, it is necessary to examine the lexis he uses. The first non-standard word used is the concrete noun Ã¢â¬Å"cribÃ¢â¬ . The word originates from Northern America, initially meaning a Ã¢â¬Å"disreputable bar or brothelÃ¢â¬ . Since the mid nineteenth century amelioration has occurred and it is used simply to mean home. However, it is still mildly associated with criminality . The next word Ã¢â¬Å"innitÃ¢â¬ , is an abbreviation of Ã¢â¬Å"isn't itÃ¢â¬ . The word is not attached to a question but used as a filler or hedge that backs up as a rhetorical device. By using the term Ã¢â¬Å"innitÃ¢â¬ at the end of a sentence the speaker asks a rhetorical question. Though the question does not necessarily have to be answered it nonetheless seems to be intended to engage the receiver's attention. Though using the word, the receiver has directly been addressed and therefore brought further into the conversation. Despite its rhetorical advantages it is possible that from a prescriptivist point of view, the shortening may be perceived as a result of the speaker's laziness. The first speaker also uses the term Ã¢â¬Å"mansÃ¢â¬ which though not strictly lexical slang is nonetheless noteworthy. It is highly probable that the term Ã¢â¬Å"mansÃ¢â¬ derives from an overextension of the standard rules of pluralisation by people to whom English isn't 1st Language. The regular rules of pluralisation have been applied to the irregular plural Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬ . Though the word Ã¢â¬Å"mansÃ¢â¬ would seem the most logical plural to apply it is grammatically incorrect as Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬ is a plural group noun and thus it is highly likely judgements would be made on intelligence and education. The attributive adjective Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ is used to mean Ã¢â¬Å"wanted by policeÃ¢â¬ . The term has British origins and was initially used by thieves to describe stolen goods around the time of 1925. Broadening of the term has since occurred and not only objects but also people can be described as hot, this is demonstrated by the use of the adjective in reference to a person. It is not hard to see how the origins of the term may increase people's likelihood to assume criminality in the speaker. The word Ã¢â¬Å"cakeÃ¢â¬ serves as a synonym to Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ . It is also notable that through the speaker's use of slang he is unlikely to be viewed as well spoken and this may be judged to be of low intelligence. Alongside this, if we accept the suggestion of MEYD as a type of anti-language the speaker may be deemed as rebellious or associated with criminality. Lexis (Speaker 2/Strong slang) The second speaker does not use as much slang as the first; however it is still necessary to have a familiarity with the vocabulary he uses to gain a full understanding of his speech. He can for this reason be seen as an example of strong slang. He uses the verbal phrase Ã¢â¬Å"tripping outÃ¢â¬ which originates from 1970's slang. The initial term being Ã¢â¬Å"Acid TripÃ¢â¬ which described a hallucinogenic experience caused by LSD. The verbal phrase originated from this and broadened to mean being under the influence of any type of drug and later to simply mean Ã¢â¬Å"acting crazy or funnyÃ¢â¬ . Regardless of the effect of broadening many people still take the phrase to mean being under the influence of drugs and thus may associate the speaker with drug use. As with the first speaker, the word Ã¢â¬Å"cakeÃ¢â¬ is used and one would assume similar effects to arise. Though it is notable that the word simply appears in a list of slang words the speaker has heard and so the effects may not be as extreme. The adjective Ã¢â¬Å"revvedÃ¢â¬ has complex origins. Its original form was the abstract noun Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionsÃ¢â¬ . The noun was used in reference to a car's revolutions and abbreviated to Ã¢â¬Å"revÃ¢â¬ for ease of use. From this use the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to revÃ¢â¬ was created via conversion and Ã¢â¬Å"to rev a carÃ¢â¬ meant Ã¢â¬Å"to force the engine to produce revsÃ¢â¬ . From this the passive stative verb form Ã¢â¬Å"to be revvedÃ¢â¬ was used in reference to being excited, in this sense the word is a metaphor comparing the excited state of a person with a car producing several Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionsÃ¢â¬ allowing it to go faster. The adjective Ã¢â¬Å"revvedÃ¢â¬ finally derived from this. The term however can also be used to mean Ã¢â¬Å"under the influence of drugsÃ¢â¬ and as a result it is possible that speakers may again associate the speaker with drug culture. As with the first speaker, it is again possible that the second user of slang will be deemed as Ã¢â¬Å"not very well spokenÃ¢â¬ and possibly Ã¢â¬Å"unintelligentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"uneducatedÃ¢â¬ simply for his using slang. It is also noticeable that he says Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ in place of Ã¢â¬Å"you'reÃ¢â¬ , this deviation from the standard derives from the Jamaican Creole but its grammatical incorrectness is again likely to make listeners deem the speaker unintelligent regardless of his genuine attributes. Lexis (Speaker 3/Weak slang) Unlike the first two speakers, no knowledge of slang or MEYD is required to understand the third speaker. Though slang is used, it is applied within the context of discussing slang terms. The speaker also does not use several features that are common in MEYD such as rhythmic pronunciation or loan words from ethnic minorities. The language used by the speaker fits more into the category of Estuary English (EE) than it does MEYD. Due to these features I have chosen to use this speaker as an example of Weak Slang. The speaker uses the term Ã¢â¬Å"bustedÃ¢â¬ but in the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldn't say bustedÃ¢â¬ thus denying any links with the word. Another word used is Ã¢â¬Å"bunÃ¢â¬ which was initially meant Ã¢â¬Å"tartÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"slagÃ¢â¬ . The adjective is English in origin and entered mainstream usage in the late nineteenth century. The speaker also talks about the attributive adjective Ã¢â¬Å"buttersÃ¢â¬ that means Ã¢â¬Å"uglyÃ¢â¬ . It is most likely of UK origin and probably derives from clipping the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"butt-uglyÃ¢â¬ . The adjective's meaning has also broadened so that it can be used to refer to anything that causes aesthetic displeasure while previously it could only be used in reference to people. The term Ã¢â¬Å"mingingÃ¢â¬ is an converted adjective from the derogatory noun Ã¢â¬Å"mingerÃ¢â¬ that derives from the Scottish phrase Ã¢â¬Å"mingÃ¢â¬ meaning Ã¢â¬Å"stinkÃ¢â¬ . The specific lexis of the speaker's vocabulary does not hold negative connotations. It is, however, possible that due to the fact all slang used by the speaker is in some way derogatory, judgements may be made on her friendliness. It is also possible that through using slang the speaker may be deemed Ã¢â¬Å"poorly spokenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"unintelligentÃ¢â¬ Lexis (Speaker 4/No Slang) The final speaker uses no slang and is simply in this study to act a control which should enable me to determine the extent the data gained from the questionnaires is due to slang. Results With shocking regularity, the results followed a distinct pattern. On almost all categories the two speakers of strong slang are rated very poorly (the speaker of very strong slang coming lowest) followed by the speaker of weak slang, who tends to fair comparatively well in people's judgements. With no exception at all, the speaker who does not use slang is seen by people as the least aggressive, most educated, most friendly, hardest working, most intelligent and best spoken. 60% of people said the non-slang user was highly likely to develop a successful career compared to the very strong-slang speaker, who was deemed highly likely to fail a job interview by 70%. If we take an average score of each participant, inversing the characteristics seen as negative (so a score of 4 on aggression would be calculated as a 1) we can see how well each speaker is perceived to conform to the idea of a good and productive member of society. Looking at this Ã¢â¬Å"good citizenÃ¢â¬ rating, we see the same pattern emerge: Again, a direct correlation is visible between how favourably the speaker is looked upon and the degree of slang they use. Conclusions We can confidently assert that in this study there is an evident relationship between slang usage and the judgements made of individuals. However, an interesting question is whether the specific lexical items used have a direct relationship with the judgments made. If we look back to the previous analysis of the speakers' vocabulary, and assume that specific lexical items do have a relationship with the judgements made, we would be led to believe the very strong slang speaker would come out worst in all categories, with the exception of Ã¢â¬Å"likelihood to take drugsÃ¢â¬ which would be dominated by the strong slang speaker. Interestingly this is exactly the case. The Ã¢â¬Å"likelihood to take drugsÃ¢â¬ category is the only exception to the general principle that the very strong slang user is judged least favourable. The data collected would lead us to believe that: Slang is in fact an anti-language, or at least perceived as one. This is reflected by the fact that the stronger speakers of slang were judged to not conform to the notion of good citizenship. Users of slang are judged more negatively than non-users of slang. The more slang is used, the more negative the judgements. This is demonstrated in the consistent pattern of the results; with the strongest slang user being judged worst, and the non-slang user being judged best. Judgements made on slang speakers have a direct relationship with the specific lexical items used. This is suggested in the strong slang speaker (who used slang derived from drug culture) being judged more likely to take drugs than the very strong slang speaker. Evaluation In any investigation, an inquiring mind is necessary, and for this reason there are several issues of validity that we must discuss. Our only evidence for suggesting that specific lexical items impact the judgements made is that the strong slang speaker was judged higher than the very strong slang speaker in his likelihood to take drugs. However, the strong slang speaker is not judged particularly higher than the very strong slang speaker thus we cannot completely assert that it is indefinitely due to his specific vocabulary, although we can speculate. Were the suggestion correct, only a small difference would be expected, as judgement on specific lexical items requires participants to have knowledge of slang used and it is unlikely that they all would. The results do not hold infinite validity, and there are undoubtedly extraneous variables however they are consistent, though we cannot completely label the results as coming from the suggested cause: One could potentially put the results down to people judging the two females higher or judging the two northerners lower. But this would still not answer the question as to why participants rated the individual females or northerners in the order they did with such consistently. One alternative explanation is that there was an apparent correlation between the class speakers were judged to be, and the participants perception of these speakers (the lower the speaker's class, the worse they were judged) The class measurement was, however, simply a judgement made of the speakers, not an actual measurement, and so one would have to explain why the speakers were judged to be the class they were, which seems to take us full circle, and back to their usage of slang as an explanation. While the results do not prove the hypothesis, they undoubtedly suggest it. To know the hypothesis' results for sure, further study would be needed.
Posted by Unknown at 3:32 PM