Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Identify major Islamic eras and key figures in Islamic history who Essay

Identify major Islamic eras and key figures in Islamic history who have had the greatest impact on the Muslim faith and on world - Essay Example The mortal occupation by the Prophet was followed by Abu Bakr who was the first of the four caliphs accepted by Sunni Muslims as the vastly guided caliphs (al-khulafa al-rashidun). Abu Bakr was regarded as a man of great sanctity and piety who ruled religiously during his political reign in two years despite intermittent blunders and biased verdicts. Abu Bakr’s reign was marred with strong forces of Arab tribalism group that threatened to break up the political unity created by the Prophet. However, Abu Bakr was incredibly successful in suppressing the tribal waves and preserved the unity of the newly founded political entity in Medina. The second caliph, Umar who was considered by the Sunnis as the most successful caliph reigned between 13/634 and 23/644 with a great record of preserving the unity of Islamic state and spreading it to other states. Umar , who remarkably lived a life of simplicity and austerity, successfully captured Jerusalem whilst showing immense respect to the houses of worship of the Jews and Christians. He further made history in spreading Islam in various countries such as Persia Syria, and North America. Umar was later succeeded by Uthman who was chosen through consensus of the community elders from 23/644 to 35/656 ensured wealth influx in Medina and the rest of Arab territory. Uthman’s administration was flawed nepotism claims which ws evident when he appointed his relative Muawiyah governor of Syria. In his reign, Uthman caused uprising against himself, which eventually led to his death. Muawiyah later moved against Uthman’s successor thus precipitating the division of the body politic that continued to date. Ali did not rule for a long period because of civil strife and wars on various borders that were led by his Shiah followers against Quraysh and his companions Talha and Zubayr. Ali afterward moved capital of Islam to Kufa in Iraq where he had many followers and confronted Syrians who did not like him. Althoug h Ali was successful in this Siffin battle, the Syrians came with Qurans in their hands pleading for arbitration, which was easily accepted by Ali. The movement of Islamic capital to Kufa led to permanent departure of political and cultural centre from Arabia though the religious centre continued to remain in Hejaz. Umayyads, after Ali’s death, ruled from central Asia to Spain and France for a long time but were confronted by efforts to restore power of aristocracy of Mecca and Bedouin rebellion against central authority and Shiite dissent. Abd al-Malik later restored peace and was preferred by both sides. Non-Arabs who believed that Umayyad were Arabs brought a fierce resistance. The Persian general led by Banu Abbas captured Damascus with the help of Persian supporters. However, the Muslim Spanish was established by one of the Umayyad thus maintaining the golden age of Muslim rule in Spain. Abbasids rule later marked the classical Islamic civilization by preserving the Isla mic empire, unity, Islamizing many institutions, and maintained caliphs. During Abbasids reign, Baghdad became the greatest Islamic cultural centre. Renowned Abbasid caliphs’ Harun al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun were the greatest patrons of arts and sciences. At this period, Islamic beliefs and knowledge started to grow such as codification of Shari’

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